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Answer – Sustainability of lion hunting trophy imports into EU – E-011937/2015

As indicated by the Honourable Member, in February 2015 the Commission amended the rules on the import into the EU of hunting trophies of various species, including the African lion. The aim of these changes is not to ban all imports of hunting trophies but to strengthen controls on these imports so as to ensure that they come from legal and sustainable sources.

The EU Scientific Review Group (SRG), which gathers scientific authorities from all EU Member States reviews information provided by the authorities of exporting countries as well as independent scientific research(1) in order to determine whether the trade in hunting trophies of endangered species represents a risk to populations of these species(2). Imports of such trophies to the EU can be suspended if such risks are identified by the SRG.

In accordance with these rules, imports into the EU of lion trophies from Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, and Ethiopia are currently suspended. The SRG also agreed that imports from the Central African Republic, Mozambique, South Sudan, Sudan and Zambia will need to be scrutinised with great attention. The SRG reviewed the situation of imports from Zimbabwe in December 2014 and concluded, based on the scientific information available, that imports of lion trophies from that country were sustainable. The SRG will continue to monitor the situation carefully.

(1) See for example the scientific references available under the following report regarding lions: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/cites/pdf/reports/Review%20of%20Panthera%20leo%20from%20trading%20range%20States%20(public).pdf and the recent Red List assessment published by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/15951/0
(2) SRG decisions are available under the following link: http://www.speciesplus.net/#/taxon_concepts/6353/legal
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Press Briefing by Principal Deputy Press Secretary Eric Schultz, 7/29/2015

James S. Brady Press Briefing Room

1:35 P.M. EDT
MR. SCHULTZ:  Good afternoon.  I have one announcement here at the top, and then we will take your questions.  
On Monday, President Obama will address the second class of 500 Mandela Washington Fellows at the Young African Leaders Initiative Presidential Summit.  The President will give brief remarks and then take questions from the fellows who represent every country in sub-Saharan Africa.  The event will be a capstone to the President’s trip to Africa where he affirmed his commitment to young people across the continent and entrepreneurial approaches to common challenges.
As you all know, the Young African Leaders Initiative, launched by President Obama in 2010, connects the United States to the next generation of leaders across sub-Saharan Africa and provides them with the leadership skills, networks, and professional opportunities that will allow them to make a meaningful impact in their countries and communities.  
With that, Nancy, I’m happy to take your questions.
Q    Can the White House confirm the death of Mullah Omar?  And what can you tell us about the circumstances of his death?
MR. SCHULTZ:  Thank you, Nancy.  We are aware of the death -- of reports of the death of Mullah Omar.  Without commenting on the specifics of these reports, we do believe the reports of his death are credible.  Beyond that, I’m not going to be in a position to comment on the specifics surrounding his death.
Q    So if he died in 2013, what would that say about intelligence cooperation with the Pakistanis?  When would the U.S. have had this on their radar screen?
MR. SCHULTZ:  Nancy, I can tell you that the intelligence community is looking at these reports and continues to assess the circumstances around his death.  But beyond that, I’m not going to be in a position here to speak candidly about what we know at this point.  I’m sure that when the IC has an update, or anything determinative, they’ll be in a position to update you.
Q    Can you preview what the President’s message is going to be to the House Democrats today?  Does he have some kind of a new approach or message that he’s bringing with him?
MR. SCHULTZ:  I don’t think he has a new approach or message.  I think the message that he’ll be offering tonight on Iran will be very similar to the public case he’s been making now for a few weeks since the deal in Vienna was reached.  As you know, he’s been making the case publicly both through interviews and through taking your questions.  And we have also had our representatives on the Hill.  Secretary Kerry, Secretary Moniz, Chairman Dempsey, I believe, are on the Hill this morning fielding questions for members of Congress.  We’ve also had extensive consultations from the White House and other briefings to Congress.  
But at the end of the day, the President’s message is simple, which is if you want to cut off Iran’s pathways to a nuclear weapon, this deal is the best way to do it, in that none of our critics have offered a more credible -- any alternative, other than going to war.  And I think that’s the case the President is going to make to House Democrats tonight. 
I don’t want to leave you with the impression that we believe Iran will be the only topic of discussion.  I imagine that will be extensively covered, but I think other legislative priorities like Ex-Im Bank, the transportation bill, and probably the budget could also very likely come up.
Q    And is there growing expectation by the White House that the President is going to be likely to need to exercise a veto option on this?
MR. SCHULTZ:  Nancy, we are confident that the arguments that we are making are going to prevail at the end of the day.  As you know, 150 House Democrats sent a letter back in May supporting the President’s efforts and the initial political framework that was announced in Lausanne.  We actually feel that we’ve exceeded the standard that was established in Lausanne.  
So as I think you’ve seen over the past couple days, the number-two Democrat in the United States Senate, Dick Durbin, came out in support of the deal.  Yesterday, Congressman Levin, who I don’t think anyone could argue with his support for the state of Israel, made a very compelling case about how this deal is in the interest of the Israeli people.  So we’re going to continue to press the case.  As I mentioned, our Cabinet officials are on the Hill today.  The President will be meeting with House Democrats later this evening.  And we’re going to continue to make this case.
Q    Yes.  Recently, this morning, the CEO of Boeing said that he was actively considering moving key pieces of the company’s business to other countries because of the lapse of the Ex-Im Bank.  I also know President Obama has made some comments on Boeing over his trip.  Has he spoken to the CEO about this issue?
MR. SCHULTZ:  I don’t have any specific calls to read out, but I can assure you that the President feels strongly that Congress needs to act and reauthorize Ex-Im Bank.  I think, since you follow this closely, you are well aware that Ex-Im Bank has supported 164,000 American jobs, and the export jobs -- jobs supported by exports -- pay up 18 percent more on average than other jobs.  
And beyond that, the Export-Import Bank is a vital tool for small businesses.  Nearly 90 percent of Ex-Im Bank transactions directly supported small businesses in 2014.  So we feel strongly that this is an institution that is a driver of economic growth and a supporter of American jobs.
Q    Also, there’s been a growing outcry over the killing of this lion in Zimbabwe by -- allegedly by an American dentist.  And also, U.S. Fish and Wildlife said that they are looking into the incident and possibly working with Zimbabwean officials who have called to bring this person to justice.  Is the White House, or is President Obama aware of this killing?  And what could the President do at an executive level to possibly keep U.S. trophy hunters from traveling to Africa and committing these acts?
MR. SCHULTZ:  Julia, I’ve seen the press reports on this.  I don’t have much for you.  I have not spoken to the President about this.  As you point out, it has been widely covered in the news.  And as we know, he’s a voracious consumer of news, so it wouldn’t surprise me that he’s aware of it, but I don’t have any detail to read out for you right now.
Q    I wanted to go back to Ex-Im, kind of, but within the confines of the highway bill, which Josh has said before is sort of the legislative package that you were hoping to see Ex-Im attached to.  So my question first is if you guys have a reaction to the apparent agreement on a short-term highway bill. And secondly, if you think that it was at all a mistake for the White House to have endorsed that short-term bill out of the House early, before the Senate had come with a plan that was both longer and had Ex-Im kind of grafted on top of it.
MR. SCHULTZ:  Justin, you’re right -- Josh did suggest that the highway transportation bill would be a good vehicle to attach Ex-Im Bank.  And fortunately, leaders in the United States Senate, both Republicans and Democrats, agreed.  And there were votes, as that bill was progressing, where Democrats and Republicans came together in a bipartisan coalition -- a rare bipartisan coalition that we see these days -- in order to attach Ex-Im Bank to the highway bill.  We feel like that was the right thing to do.
In terms of the pending transportation bill that you're referencing, as the President has said, we as a country cannot continue to rely on short-term patches as an approach to funding long-term infrastructure needs.  
With that said, since surface transportation authorization does expire at the end of July, just a few days from now, the unfortunate reality is that due to inaction, Congress will need to pass this other short-term extension to keep federal funding for America’s surface transportation system flowing.  And the President would sign that.
Q    But, I mean, to get back to the question, was it a tactical mistake to back the House bill that didn't have Ex-Im attached and was only short-term?  Even though we kind of know the President would sign short-term bills, it kind of forced House Democrats to back this package where maybe if they’d held out, they could have had leverage to get the Senate bill in front of the House.
MR. SCHULTZ:  Justin, that's not how we see it.  Reauthorizing Ex-Im Bank has happened 16 times in past Congresses, all with broad bipartisan majorities.  The past 13 Presidents -- Republicans and Democrats -- have supported the bank.  So this time should not have been any different. 
As we’ve said, one of the more likely vehicles to pass Congress over the past few weeks is this transportation bill.  That's why we thought it should have been attached, and that's why the Senate apparently shared our view.  
Unfortunately, you had the Speaker of the House use a word to describe Leader McConnell’s bill -- a word that I can't even use in public.  So -- 
Q    Well, maybe behind the podium.  (Laughter.)  
MR. SCHULTZ:  Yes.  From the podium.  (Laughter.)  Fair enough.  But if you're asking me to evaluate the level of dysfunction in the Republican Congress, I’m happy to engage you on that because it’s rare that we’ve seen this level of distrust between two leaders of separate chambers but from the both parties.
And if you just take a step back and you look at what we’ve experienced over the past few days and weeks, I would like to first remind you of the aftermath of the 2014 midterms where Leader McConnell and Speaker Boehner jointly penned an op-ed in The Wall Street Journal where they thought -- they felt confident in their ability to get Congress working again.  Well, I think we know that the results are in, and I’m not confident they lived up to their promise.
Right now what they're focused on is an ideological rider to defund Planned Parenthood.  They're dealing with strife within their own party.  And they're leaving town early to get a head start on their six-week break.  If you put that side by side with their inability to authorize Ex-Im Bank; that we're on the precipice of the Highway Trust Fund running out in the height of construction season; and that they have the gall to leave town without even touching cybersecurity legislation -- we think that's revelatory of their priorities, and we think those are misplaced priorities.
Q    One last thing.  On Keystone, Senator Hoeven said yesterday that sources had told him that there would be a sort of release over the August recess of you guys rejecting the pipeline.  That prompts I think a number of questions.  The first is whether the State Department has, at this point, finished its review or informed the White House in any way of where the review is.  If not, what the status of it is.  It’s sort of the constant question.  And then whether there will be a review at the White House after the State Department comes to its decision, and what the timeline of that would be.
MR. SCHULTZ:  Justin, your term for constant question is generous.  Our answer is going to be the same, which is, as you know, this is under a review process at the State Department.  That particular process is a process that predates this administration, so I’m not going to have any update for you from here.
Q    Well, then was Senator Hoeven either misinformed or lying about what he had heard about --
MR. SCHULTZ:  I haven’t read Senator Hoeven’s remarks. 
Q    I can relay them to you, though.  He said in August that you guys would reject the pipeline on that odd quiet Friday.
MR. SCHULTZ:  Sure.  I appreciate Senator Hoeven’s remarks here.  I’m not sure I would classify him as a confidant of our State Department.  But you should check with him to see what he’s basing that off of.
Q    Thank you, Eric.  Two inspectors general concluded that Secretary of State Hillary Clinton had classified material on her home server, emails that were classified when they were sent and remain classified.  What’s the White House reaction to this?
MR. SCHULTZ:  Bryon, I can say a couple things about this.  First, this administration takes the role of inspector generals very seriously.  They serve an extremely important purpose.  So when they raise a possible issue, it’s important to look into it.
Equally important is our commitment to properly handling classified and sensitive information.  For very obvious reasons we have to make sure that those materials are handled in accordance with all the right protocols.  And I can assure you that all of us in government who work with those materials take that responsibility very seriously.
I know that the State Department is equally committed to both of those principles, and that's Secretary Kerry has said he’s going to be discussing this with his inspector general this week.  And I also know that Secretary Kerry wants to get to the bottom of this, hear what the concerns are, and then figure out if they need to take any action.  So I think that's the right step, and we support him doing so.
Q    You mentioned the role that inspectors general play and how important they are.  How come the White House didn't nominate anyone to fill that role while Secretary Clinton was at State?  And do you bear any responsibility in this situation for not doing that?
MR. SCHULTZ:  Bryon, just like our conversation with Justin, I know that's a frequent question here.  And I can assure you that we do take the role of inspector generals very seriously.  And I believe just because there wasn’t a Senate-confirmed inspector general at the State Department at this time, that doesn't mean that office wasn’t very active.
Q    Are you satisfied with the answers you've gotten from Secretary Clinton publicly about the situation?
MR. SCHULTZ:  I think what Secretary Clinton has demonstrated is a commitment to not only transparency.  That's why she has asked the State Department to review and release all of those emails, and we think that's appropriate.
Q    On Iran, with the reception today, what is it about the environment of a reception and the East Room that you think will be effective in trying to change minds or lock in positions among Democrats?
MR. SCHULTZ:  I think my boss coined a phrase here called a working reception, which, as he said, is the worst of both worlds.  (Laughter.)  So I’ll credit him with that.
But, yes, I do think this is going to be an opportunity for the President to speak directly to members here at the White House.  I think he will likely make some opening remarks and talk about his view on this, his perspective, and then I think it’s likely he takes some questions.  I imagine he takes questions from members who have them.  And then I also think it’s likely that they have some time to talk one-on-one in more of a social setting.
So I think this will be a good opportunity for him to make the case for why we believe this is not only a deal that’s in the best interest of the United States but also one for the region.
Q    Would you take a request for the opening remarks to be open press?
MR. SCHULTZ:  I’m happy to take that request, but I believe that these circumstances -- we’ve traditionally kept this closed press.  But I can assure you that the message that he is going to deliver is one that will be very familiar to all of you.
Q    Let me first ask you about the situation with Mullah Omar.  I appreciate that you were able to semi-confirm his death, saying that the reports are credible -- I guess that’s almost a confirmation.  But if this happened two years ago, is there a problem with American intelligence that we didn’t know that he died either by a drone strike or tuberculosis or something, and we’re not reporting it until today?
MR. SCHULTZ:  Jim, I fully appreciate the question.  Unfortunately, I’m just not going to be in a position to comment on the specifics of these reports and those circumstances.  So it’s hard for me to answer that question in some detail without confirming what presupposes that question.
Q    Well, okay, then take out the causes of death, if you would, and just the fact that you believe those are credible reports that he is dead.  Those reports also said he died two years ago.  Why did the United States intelligence not know about that?  That, I don’t think, could cause you to comment on the causes of death or anything else.  It does ask what’s the problem with -- is there a problem with our intelligence agencies.
MR. SCHULTZ:  Jim, I don’t think there’s a problem.  In fact, the intelligence agencies are right now reviewing these reports, reviewing the specific circumstances.  And as soon as there’s anything definitive that we can share with you, that I suspect you will want to scrutinize at that time would be appropriate.  But we’re just not in a position to do that today.
Q    Switching subjects just a moment to Cleveland, Ohio, or outside Cleveland, Ohio.  There was another incident where an undocumented immigrant was involved in a -- is charged now with murder.  And he had been, according to reports, picked up before that by local police.  There were no charges to be made then, but they did realize he was undocumented and called, they say, the Border Patrol, which would probably be the wrong agency to call.  But if they called ICE -- but, at any rate, they didn’t -- they were told, no, we’re not going to pick him up.  My question to you is, on the White House level of this, do you believe, as Donald Trump has been saying, that what’s really needed is a wall to prevent this type of incident?
MR. SCHULTZ:  Thank you, Jim, for the question.  I would refer you to ICE for the specifics on any case like the one you mentioned.  I can tell you that if any Republican wants to dedicate more resources to securing the border, then they should go ahead and support comprehensive immigration reform.  That is a bill that passed the Senate with Republicans and Democrats and the support of this President, and would allocate unprecedented resources toward securing the border.  And so if any Republican, either ones running for President or not, want to take a significant step in that direction, then they should go ahead and urge the House leadership to bring that bill up for a vote.  We’re not even urging the House leadership to vote for it; we just want there to be a vote because we’re confident it would pass.
Q    But Trump believes it’s a wall, not comprehensive immigration reform.  Does the White House, because of these incidents, believe that a wall would help with that?
MR. SCHULTZ:  I don’t think that’s our take.  What we think are that these episodes do demonstrate the need to eliminate the patchwork of immigration laws around our country and to pass a comprehensive bill.  In fact, it was none other than Marco Rubio, the junior Senator from Florida, who stated it more eloquently than I am, which is the current conditions in this country are amnesty, are a de facto amnesty.  And the way to restore accountability to our national immigration system is to pass the bill, and we couldn’t agree more.
Thank you.  Sunlen.
Q    Thank you.  A couple items to ask, but first I wanted to ask you about the CNN investigation looking into a federal program called AbilityOne, which provides work to severely disabled people.  Multiple sources saying the DOJ has started an investigation into multiple allegations of widespread corruption, financial fraud; sources saying it’s the worst case of this type that they’ve seen in a federal agency.  What’s the administration’s response?  Are you aware of these problems?
MR. SCHULTZ:  Sunlen, I did see a CNN story on that.  It’s my understanding that a lot of the issues within CNN’s report are tied up in litigation, so I’m not really in a position to comment from here on that.  But I would refer you to AbilityOne for their response.  And I know you all have been reporting on their response.
Q    Is the President aware of these problems?  Because it says this group is made up of 15 presidential appointees; they report to the President.  So certainly this is something that he would be concerned about, knowing that these problems -- 
MR. SCHULTZ:  Again, I haven’t spoken to the President about this, so I’m not sure his level of awareness.  But I do know that AbilityOne has been clear that they emphasize program integrity.  But, again, beyond that, I know a lot of this is tied up in litigation so I’d refer you to the agency for more details.
Q    And does the White House have any reaction to the indictment of Congressman Chaka Fattah?
MR. SCHULTZ:  We don’t.  As you know, we go to great lengths to not only avoid commenting on individual cases and prosecutions, but also to make sure that nothing we say here could be construed as interfering in an investigation.  So I’m not going to have anything for you on that.
Q    Okay.  And you briefly alluded to Planned Parenthood, but I wondered if I could get the reaction.  This latest third undercover video, very graphic images.  Wondering what the administration’s response is.  Has the President seen the video himself?  And also, the moves by Senate Republicans and others to potentially restrict federal funding.
MR. SCHULTZ:  I haven’t watched the video.  I’m not sure the President has.  Clearly, he has been elsewhere the past few days.  But I can -- we are, of course, here familiar with the news reports, including that a lot of these videos have been edited.  And in response to your question about House Republicans moving to defund Planned Parenthood, we couldn’t disagree more with their actions.  We believe that Planned Parenthood provides a range of important preventative care and health services -- things like screenings, vaccines and check-ups to men, women and families across the country.  Millions of men and women visit Planned Parenthood health centers annually, and we support them getting the types of services and health care they need.
Thank you.  Jared.
Q    Eric, earlier, to Justin, you described Senator Hoeven as not a close confidant of the State Department.  Maybe you can concede that the former Secretary of State is slightly more intimate with the workers at the State Department.  She, yesterday, in a town hall in New Hampshire, said that she believes that by the time the administration, the Obama administration is over, the Keystone XL question will be resolved.  Does the White House believe that by the end of this administration the Keystone XL issue will be resolved?
Q    Does Senator Hoeven and Hillary Clinton have better information about what’s dispositive here about Keystone XL, or are they just willing to tell us more than you are?  
MR. SCHULTZ:  I can tell you that, from the White House perspective, that this is a project that is under review at the State Department.  That is a process that I know has garnered a lot of attention in this room, but it’s also a process that predates this administration.  So that approval process is being handled on the merits, and when there is an update for you on it, I’m sure they’ll share it.
Q    And the White House has for years given odds about the situation with the Iranian nuclear deal when it was in Vienna and when it was working through the 50/50 really bad number that we’ve been throwing around very loosely over the past few years.  In the home stretch for Congress and with the vote upcoming, and whatever efforts the White House has been making, do you have some odds on what you believe, at this point, would be -- whether it could be squashed by Congress or whether the White House expects at this point that Congress will be able to either approve or not disapprove of the Iran nuclear deal? 
MR. SCHULTZ:  Jared, I do think our arguments are going to prevail.  That if you look at the case that the President has made most recently in response to questions overseas on this trip, and in the case that he’ll be making this evening to lawmakers, in the case that he’s made in interviews and press conferences here, that taking our critics head on and taking on possible criticism of the deal, that we are confident in our arguments. 
But you don’t have to take my word for it.  You just have to look at our opponents resorting to not merit-based arguments in order to try and find fault with this deal.  Whether that is over-heated rhetoric, or whether that is Governor Walker saying he wants to prepare to take military action on day one if he were elected to the presidency -- Those are the alternatives out there.  And so that’s part of the reason why we feel confident in our case. 
Q    Do you feel certain that this will not be impeded by Congress?  
MR. SCHULTZ:  Jared, there are -- I have other colleagues who are better gamblers than me, so I'm not going to do the odds business, but I will say that we are confident our argument is going to prevail. 
Jared.  I'm sorry, Jordan.  
Q    Thank you, Eric. 
MR. SCHULTZ:  Yes, or we could do a déjà vu.  Do that all over again.  (Laughter.) 
Q    A follow up on Chaka Fattah.  Was the White House aware an indictment was imminent when he flew on Air Force One with the President to Philadelphia for his event on criminal justice reform? 
Q    And on the minimum wage.  Leader Pelosi came out yesterday in support of a $15 minimum wage.  And I'm wondering if the White House is willing to support a $15 minimum wage? 
MR. SCHULTZ:  Jordan, President Obama has made clear, eight years since the federal minimum wage increase last passed, that action by Congress to raise the minimum wage is long overdue.  In a previous State of the Union address, we suggested Congress raise the minimum wage to $10.10.  We more recently supported legislation by Senator Murray and Congressman Scott that would raise the minimum wage to $12.00 an hour by 2020.
There is a number of proposals pending before Congress.  We just want them to move on one -- that we believe that despite this President’s leadership in bringing this country out of an economic downturn that we haven’t seen since the Great Depression, that despite the longest stretch of private sector job growth in our nation’s history, that wages have not grown fast enough or steep enough.  And that’s why the President believes that America’s workers deserve a raise.
I know that different localities, cities and states, and even private companies, are choosing to take action in light of Congress’s inaction.  Those are moves we support.  It’s my understanding that the current tally is 17 states and the District of Columbia have all passed minimum wage increases despite Congress’s recalcitrance.  We support those efforts.  But we do believe it’s going to be up to those localities to decide the best specific numbers that suit those areas.  
Thank you.  Doug. 
Q    Back to Mullah Omar.  The BBC report that the Taliban has been putting out statements in his name as recently as this month.  There is a new round of peace talks between the government about Ashraf Ghani and the Taliban set for this Tuesday.  Who has the government of Afghanistan been negotiating with, given he’s been dead for two years now?  And what would you recommend for this upcoming round of peace talks? 
MR. SCHULTZ:  Sure.  Well, Doug, I appreciate you raising that because we do believe the Taliban has an opportunity to make genuine peace with the Afghan government and rebuild their lives in peace in Afghanistan.  They can accept the government of Afghanistan’s invitation to join a peace process and ultimately become part of a legitimate political system in Afghanistan, or they can choose to continue fighting Afghans and destabilizing their own country. 
So you are right in suggesting that the United States does continue to support an Afghan-led and Afghan-owned reconciliation process as the surest way to end violence in the region. 
Q    Changing subjects now to this side deal and the Iran nuclear agreement.  Some of your Cabinet members have been taking a beating up in the Senate Armed Services Committee today on that side deal.  Why did the United States not know of this side deal? Why did not the administration representatives brief Congress on this side deal when they first undertook briefings for members of Congress?  And why have no members of the administration read the side deal? 
MR. SCHULTZ:  Sure, Doug.  We should take this an opportunity to clear this up.  There is no side deal.  There are no secret deals between the P5+1 and Iran separate from the commitments outlined in the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action. 
Again, this is a deal that prevents Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon.  Everything we and our P5+1 partners agreed to is spelled out within that Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action announced from Vienna last week.  
In terms of the documents, Congress has what we have.  We have -- not only are they on the website, online, but they’ve also been briefed many times over to Congress.  As a standard in these agreements, there’s an arrangement specifically between the IAEA and individuals states that are confidential documents that the IAEA does not release to other states, and they have a number of very understandable and possibly obvious reasons why they don’t release documents pertaining to proliferation more widely. 
But what’s important to understand is the IAEA, which are the international community’s renowned experts in this area, as well as the P5+1 -- the entire international community -- are absolutely confident in the agreement that was struck between the IAEA and Iran in their inspections.
Q    Can you confirm that this deal allows Iran to collect its own soil samples at the Parchin facility?
MR. SCHULTZ:  I think some of the details in that agreement remain classified and remain sensitive, so I'm not in a position to discuss them from here.  But what I can do is I can assure you that not only is the -- the international inspectors, who we all trust to monitor this, have been assured, and assured us, that they will have the access they need.  But I can also tell you the P5+1 -- the international community -- which has an invested stake in this are also confident in the arrangement that was struck. 
Q    Last question.  Why did Secretary Kerry, just moments ago, and Secretary Moniz, moments ago, say that they have not read the side deal?  They testified to that effect.  
MR. SCHULTZ:  Well, I think there’s a difference between reading the side deal and any specific piece of paper and knowing what’s in it.  And I think we’ve been very clear that we are not only are aware of what’s in it, but we’re entirely comfortable with it -- as are the international inspectors and the scientists and the experts who have the expertise in this.
Thank you.  Mark. 
Q    Eric, how can you say with such assurance a moment ago that there will be a decision on Keystone from State by the end of the administration?    
MR. SCHULTZ:  It’s my understanding that this is a process that is undergone at the State Department -- again, this is a process that predates this administration.  And we believe that if you check in with them for an update, they’ll offer where they are in their process.  
Q    Is there at all a disparity, do you think, between the years that State has been working on Keystone and the 60 days you’ve given Congress to come to a decision on the Iran nuclear deal?
Q    Why not?
MR. SCHULTZ:  Because, for us, those are entirely separate and unrelated issues -- that the 60-day clock with Iran was written in a legislation that they wrote.  That was a clock that they started.  The Keystone decision is under review at the State Department, and it’s my understanding it had nothing to do with Senator Corkey’s legislation, which dictated the architecture of how they’re going to have oversight over the Iran deal.
Q    Is the President at all impatient with how long it’s taking at State?
MR. SCHULTZ:  I haven't heard that.
Q    Can you ask him?
MR. SCHULTZ:  I will try.
Q    Eric, couple questions.  I’m sure you saw back there the news conference about the police officer from the University of Cincinnati.  Basically, he’s indicted and he’s been indicted essentially for losing his temper, allegedly, against a suspect. Does this administration feel that there’s need to be more training of police officers in this country, as it seems that there is somewhat of that same type of threat when we see some of these instances?  Is there an effort from the Justice Department that the President is working with Loretta Lynch on along that line?
MR. SCHULTZ:  April, you’re right -- I know that there was a news conference going on back in Ohio just as we were coming out. So I didn’t have a chance to watch it, and obviously it’s a local case under local investigation and prosecution.  So I’d refer you to them for details.
In terms of this issue at large, which I think you are referencing -- as you know, the President did stand up a Task Force on 21st Century Policing to come out with a host of very serious and tangible recommendations that law enforcement across this country has been studying and have taken to heart.  I don’t have an update for you on departments that have implemented those recommendations, but I know that it is a fulsome list, which we can get you.  And I do know that training is a big part of that; that the President believes that in order to restore trust between certain law enforcement agencies around this country and the communities they serve, a gap that in some places has been widening, that one of the steps that local law enforcement can take is to increase their training.
Q    And last question.  There seems to be a serious effort to draft Vice President Biden to run for President of the United States.  Has the President encouraged or talked to Vice President Biden about the possibilities?
MR. SCHULTZ:  I have not spoken to the President about his private conversations with the Vice President.  As you know, the President has said that the best political decision that he’s ever made in his career has been to ask Joe Biden to run as his Vice President.  So he could not be more impressed and appreciative of the Vice President’s service than he is.
Q    That’s the endorsement?  (Laughter.)  
Q    And I’m going to ask one more question.
MR. SCHULTZ:  You said that was your last one.  
Q    Well, I’m sorry -- (laughter) -- I changed my mind.
MR. SCHULTZ:  Just checking.
Q    Has there been any talk around the White House, hearing that -- particularly from next door -- that he could possibly throw his hat in? 
MR. SCHULTZ:  I haven't heard anything about those discussions, if they’re happening or not.
Q    There are reports today that there was hacking presumably by the Chinese, at the same time of the OPM hack, against United Airlines, in which information similar to what was taken from the government -- files regarding passenger lists and possibly more -- could have been taken.  Do you have any information?
MR. SCHULTZ:  I don’t, Bill.  I know that the United Airlines has put out a statement.  We are certainly aware of the reports about their cyber intrusion, but I’d refer you to United for comment on their specific situation.
Q    You can’t confirm the fact of the intrusion?
MR. SCHULTZ:  What was the question again?
Q    Can you confirm the fact of the intrusion?
MR. SCHULTZ:  I’ve seen those reports, but I’d refer you to United to comment on their own.
Q    You could maybe, but you’re not going to?  Is that what you’re saying?
MR. SCHULTZ:  What I’m saying is I’ve seen the reports, but we’re going to refer you to United to address any circumstances around their --
Q    But you certainly suggest that the government must know something and it doesn’t want to talk.
MR. SCHULTZ:  Bill, don’t be so cynical.  I think that --
Q    Moi?  (Laughter.)  
MR. SCHULTZ:  I think, again, we’re going to let United Airlines, which presumably has very able public relations folks, field those questions.

Q    Thoughts and a little insight.  Turkey and the United States have signed a deal over the former Incirlik Air Base with the U.S.-led coalition fighting the Islamic State.  The Turkish Foreign Minister has mentioned, and it’s been reported by Reuters.  Wednesday also marked the heaviest airstrikes by Turkey against the PKK, after President Erdogan ruled out any peace process.  Any comments on that from the White House?
MR. SCHULTZ:  JC, I think, as you saw two weeks ago now, when this was first announced, that we’ve been clear that the United States and Turkey have held ongoing consultations about ways we can further our joint counter-ISIL efforts to respond to common threats.  As you know, Turkey is a strategic NATO ally, a close friend, and a valuable partner in the coalition to defeat ISIL.  And we are appreciative of the commitment the Turkish government has made to further and deepen our cooperation broadly in the counter-ISIL fight.  That’s going to include support for the train-and-equip program, intelligence-sharing, and operational coordination.  
And like you mentioned, as part of this, Turkey is going to grant clearance for the deployment of manned and unmanned aircraft from the U.S. and other coalition members participating in air operations in their air base.
Q    How does this play in with the unfortunate circumstance of the bombings of the PKK individuals, the Kurdish, who are supposedly supporting our efforts?
MR. SCHULTZ:  You’re right, as we spoke in real time, that we do condemn the PKK’s attack -- that, as we have said, that they are a foreign terrorist organization, and we have said that we respect Turkey’s right to defend itself.  So we believe that, overall, we call for a de-escalation and we call for the return to a peaceful solution process.
Q    Thanks, Eric.  On the IRS, two House Republican lawmakers on Monday called on the President to fire IRS Commissioner John Koskinen, or they said they’ll try to impeach him.  Any response from the White House? 
MR. SCHULTZ:  Yes.  As we have said, Commissioner Koskinen is a man of the highest integrity with a steadfast commitment to public service during difficult times.  His decades of experience turning around both public and private institutions continue to make him the right person to lead this agency.  
If we look back at how cooperative the IRS has been with the multiple investigations which have spanned multiple years now, I think it’s worth noting that they’ve testified in over 25 congressional hearings, provided more than 50 employees for interviews, and produced more than 1 million pages of documents. 
I know that you mentioned two House Republicans who tried to make news on this.  I’d call to your attention the response from Congressman Cummings who pointed out that the independent inspector general himself who concluded in a report to the Oversight Committee just last month noted that there is no evidence to substantiate the very claims that Republicans just yesterday were making.
So that particular report, which you can find online, found no evidence to back up Republican claims of political motivation, White House involvement, or any intentional destruction of evidence.  So I command that report to your attention.
Bob.  Francesca.  
Q    What?  (Laughter.) 
MR. SCHULTZ:  Whatever.  (Laughter.)  Francesca.  
Q    I’ll take it.  I’ll take it.  You can call me whatever you want, as long as you call on me.  
MR. SCHULTZ:  Yes.  Welcome back.  How was your trip?
Q    Thank you, appreciate that.  I wanted to go back to Iran.  You describe the talks that the President has had or the White House has had with Democrats and members of Congress as extensive about the Iran deal.  Do you know if the President has talked to Senator Schumer personally about the deal?
MR. SCHULTZ:  I don't have specific conversations to read out.  I know that the President has spoken with specific members of Congress -- both in the House and the Senate, both Democrats and Republicans, and both skeptics and supporters.  The President believes that, on the merits, that this is an argument -- that our case is one that is worth making.  And so I don't have specific conversations to read out to you.  But I do know that Senator Schumer, as a member of the leadership in the Senate, is someone whose support we’d like.
Q    Well, on a related note, will Congresswoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz be at the event tonight? 
MR. SCHULTZ:  I think we had a resounding RSVP list.  But I don't have the exact tally in front of me, so you might want to check with her office.
Q    And a final thing on that topic then, isn’t it troubling, though, to the White House that both of those very high-profile Democratic members who also happen to be Jewish Americans, as well, have not come out in support of the deal?  I know it’s only been two weeks.  But the deal, as the White House has said, is very close to what the political framework was.  So they’ve known what was going to be in it for quite some time now.
MR. SCHULTZ:  As you pointed out, it’s only been two weeks.  And as others have pointed out, we have a whole 60 days for Congress to look over this.  So we're going to continue to make the case to the two members you've identified, but we're going to make the case to everyone we can.
Q    Thanks.  Following up on the meeting tonight with Democrats, so Congress is going to leave without having started any budget negotiations or addressing sequester.  What is the President’s message on because going forward?
MR. SCHULTZ:  The President’s message is simple, and you've heard it from, Josh, as well.  But that it’s unfortunate that Congress is going to leave town without a lot of progress made on this; that this economic recovery we’ve seen is one that would only be supported if we lift the sequester restrictions and we fund government at appropriate levels.
(Sneeze.)  Bless you, Gardiner.  (Laughter.)  Is that not allowed anymore?  We don't have manners here?
So, Cheryl, so that's our approach.  I think that's -- if you had eyes in the walls tonight in the East Room, you would see the President making a similar case.  
Q    So are there any particular -- 
Q    Just open it up.
Q    Yes, can we come?
MR. SCHULTZ:  I asked for that.
Q    That would be great.  Yes.  (Laughter.)  But is there any particular tactic or strategy to try to kick-start these negotiations that he’s going to -- 
MR. SCHULTZ:  Well, I can tell you that White House officials and officials at the relevant agencies like the Office of Management and Budget and at the Treasury Department have certainly been in touch with House and Senate leaders urging them to roll up their sleeves and make some progress on this.  We’ve been disappointed thus far with their inaction.  
Q    Thank you, Eric.  Three brief questions for you.  First, Congressman Mike Kelly of Pennsylvania has taken a different tack from other Republicans.  Rather than go and embrace the defunding of Planned Parenthood, he has written the Commissioner of the IRS and asked for an audit of some of the controversial reports that have been coming up.  And this occurred at a hearing of the Ways and Means Subcommittee.  Is this something the administration would be positive about -- an IRS audit of Planned Parenthood to clear the air and controversy? 
MR. SCHULTZ:  I haven’t heard that any of the videos or any of the issues surrounding Planned Parenthood have anything to do with the IRS.  So I’m not sure.  I’m sure the Commissioner of the IRS will evaluate the request, as he does all the others.  But I haven’t seen anything to suggest that that audit is necessary.
Q    The other question is, does the administration -- while supporting certainly the agreement between Greece and its partners -- believe it is sustainable, even though the International Monetary Fund has raised questions?  Or do they think that the specter of Greek exit from the euro would reappear down the line? 
MR. SCHULTZ:  That's a good question.  I think we do, as you note, we do support the agreement that was reached between Greece and European leaders.  It’s my understanding that they continue to make progress on implementing that deal, so I don't have any updates for you on that.  And I certainly am not going to second-guess that deal right here today.
Q    And finally -- and I’ve been dying to know this for a while -- the President made Ms. Harper Lee a member of the Council of Arts in his first term.  Does he plan to read “To Set a Watchman”?  
MR. SCHULTZ:  I have not spoken to the President about his reading list.  As you know, usually there’s a few weeks in August where he gets a chance to read some books.
Q    That's why I mention it. 
MR. SCHULTZ:  So we can see if that's on the list for this year.
Q    Will you get back to me on that?
MR. SCHULTZ:  I will try. 
Q    Thanks, Eric.  The Boy Scouts of America this week lifted its policy prohibiting openly gay people from serving as leaders of its various (inaudible).  The President publicly has called for the organization to lift its ban on openly gay people.  How was he made aware of the news?  And did he have any reaction to that?
MR. SCHULTZ:  I don’t know how the President received the news.  But as you point out, that under the leadership of Bob Gates, the Boy Scouts of America did take a big step forward on Monday in accepting qualified Scout leaders, employees and volunteers, regardless of who they love.  And this is something that’s consistent with what the President has talked about.  He has long believed that the Boy Scouts is a valuable organization that has helped educate and build character in American boys for more than a century.  And he thinks this was an important step for them to take.
Q    One things that the policy leaves in place is allowing religious chartered organizations to continue to use religion to evaluate admission, including on the basis of sexual orientation.  Does the President believe that the policy change should go further to prohibit these organizations also from using sexual orientation as a factor? 
MR. SCHULTZ:  Again, Chris, I haven’t talked to the President about this, but I do know that he believes and was encouraged by the significant step they announced this week.
Q    And one other thing, too.  When the President was in Africa, he responded during a press conference quite boldly to the issue of the way gay people are treated out in that country, where being gay is punished by up to 14 years in prison.  That issue came up publicly in the press conference, but did it come up privately at all during the discussions on the trip?
MR. SCHULTZ:  Yes, I can assure you that the President did raise this privately and he didn’t pull any punches at the time.  The President believes that equality is a fundamental pillar not only because it’s the right thing to do but because it strengthens countries.  And the remarks that he made both -- I believe in both press conferences in Kenya and in Ethiopia, and then in his extensive remarks yesterday in front of the African Union, that the issue of broader human rights in Africa is one where they’ve made progress but they clearly have a long way to go.  And that’s part of the reason why he was so encouraged by his visit.  
He felt that this visit was an opportunity to accomplish the goal of not only deepening the ties between the United States and Africa but also raising awareness on these issues.  I know that the President himself said some countries prefer to not engage and to not try and lift up these issues, even when they might be uncomfortable, but that’s not this President’s approach.
Q    And what did the President say privately?  What was the reaction he got?
MR. SCHULTZ:  I don’t have a detailed readout of the bilateral conversations, but I do know that he raised this and was quite forceful on it.

Thank you.  Goyal, we’ll give you the last one. 
Q    Thank you, Eric.  This may be my July birthday gift.
Q    Two questions.  One, recently, the Vice President was addressing the Fortune 500 companies from the U.S. and from India at the Willard under the leadership and organized by CII and Carnegie Institutions.  Would he lay down the U.S.-India relations (inaudible) -- so for U.S.-India civil nuclear agreement?  Was he carrying any message from the President?  Also, there was an announcement that over $15 billion have been invested in the U.S. by Indian companies, creating over 100,000 jobs in the U.S.  My question is, if he was carrying any presidential message and, second, how this Export-Import Bank is playing a role between U.S.-India trade relations.
MR. SCHULTZ:  Sure.  Goyal, I think that’s a good question.  I don’t have specifics on how any specific loans or support structures that Ex-Im has offered American companies, specifically for business in India.  But I’m sure my friends and my counterparts at the Ex-Im Bank could get that for you.
I think generally speaking, the reason that Republicans and Democrats support Ex-Im Bank is because it is an engine of economic growth and American jobs for American companies here at home.  Generally speaking, in terms of the U.S.-India partnership, which you’ve referenced, the President is very enthusiastic about the prospect of increased collaboration, increased economic growth for American companies, and investments in India.  I think you heard that from his recent trip there a few months ago.  But just because he is not over there right now, that doesn’t mean we don’t have key members of our team working on this.  So economic growth across the country remains -- across the world, remains a priority for this President and oftentimes that manifests itself in investments in foreign countries.  And India is very high on that list.
Q    And secondly, on immigration, if I can follow Jim’s question differently.  After presidential victories on many issues, including trade, health and also equal rights among others, now millions of undocumented immigrants, they are seeking and asking that this might be the last victory for the President before he leaves office on immigration.  They are living under the shadow.  If the President can bring them out of the shadows and if they see ever light in their dark tunnel ever? 
MR. SCHULTZ:  Sure.  As you point out, millions are living under the shadows, and the best way for them to get out of the shadows and restore accountability is for the House to pass the Senate bipartisan comprehensive immigration reform package.  As you all recall, that was a bill that was not written by this President, but the President never called that perfect.  It’s probably not precisely the bill that he would have passed if he was writing it, but that it was the product of compromise, it was the product of bipartisan compromise, where Democrats and Republicans -- a rare scene in this town -- came together to pass a bill.  And we believe the House should take that up and pass it as well.
Q    Any message you think he has for them -- for the immigrants, for these undocumented?
MR. EARNEST:  I see.  Well, the President has, as we said when we took the executive actions that I think you’re referencing, that the President asked his team to develop executive actions, the boldest that we could take within the bounds of the law.  And he believes that his team both the Secretary of Homeland Security, Jeh Johnson, working with our Attorney General at the time, Eric Holder, came up with a set of policies that he was proud of and worked to implement.  Some of that is tied up in courts and litigation right now.  Other pieces, other significant pieces are being implemented, and so our focus is on continuing that work.
Thank you all.
2:28 P.M. EDT

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Remarks by President Obama to the People of Africa

Mandela Hall
African Union Headquarters
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

2:07 P.M. EAT
THE PRESIDENT:  Thank you.  (Applause.)  Thank you so much. Madam Chairwoman, thank you so much for your kind words and your leadership.  To Prime Minister Hailemariam, and the people of Ethiopia -- once again, thank you for your wonderful hospitality and for hosting this pan-African institution.  (Applause.)  To members of the African Union, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen -- thank you for welcoming me here today.  It is a great honor to be the first President of the United States to address the African Union.  (Applause.)   
I’m grateful for this opportunity to speak to the representatives of more than one billion people of the great African continent.  (Applause.)  We’re joined today by citizens, by leaders of civil society, by faith communities, and I’m especially pleased to see so many young people who embody the energy and optimism of today’s Africa.  Hello!  Thank you for being here.  (Applause.)  
I stand before you as a proud American.  I also stand before you as the son of an African.  (Applause.)  Africa and its people helped to shape America and allowed it to become the great nation that it is.  And Africa and its people have helped shape who I am and how I see the world.  In the villages in Kenya where my father was born, I learned of my ancestors, and the life of my grandfather, the dreams of my father, the bonds of family that connect us all as Africans and Americans. 
As parents, Michelle and I want to make sure that our two daughters know their heritage -- European and African, in all of its strengths and all of its struggle.  So we’ve taken our daughters and stood with them on the shores of West Africa, in those doors of no return, mindful that their ancestors were both slaves and slave owners.  We’ve stood with them in that small cell on Robben Island where Madiba showed the world that, no matter the nature of his physical confinement, he alone was the master of his fate.  (Applause.)  For us, for our children, Africa and its people teach us a powerful lesson -- that we must uphold the inherent dignity of every human being.
Dignity -- that basic idea that by virtue of our common humanity, no matter where we come from, or what we look like, we are all born equal, touched by the grace of God.  (Applause.)    Every person has worth.  Every person matters.  Every person deserves to be treated with decency and respect.  Throughout much of history, mankind did not see this.  Dignity was seen as a virtue reserved to those of rank and privilege, kings and elders. It took a revolution of the spirit, over many centuries, to open our eyes to the dignity of every person.  And around the world, generations have struggled to put this idea into practice in laws and in institutions.
So, too, here in Africa.  This is the cradle of humanity, and ancient African kingdoms were home to great libraries and universities.  But the evil of slavery took root not only abroad, but here on the continent.  Colonialism skewed Africa’s economy and robbed people of their capacity to shape their own destiny.  Eventually, liberation movements grew.  And 50 years ago, in a great burst of self-determination, Africans rejoiced as foreign flags came down and your national flags went up.  (Applause.)  As South Africa’s Albert Luthuli said at the time, “the basis for peace and brotherhood in Africa is being restored by the resurrection of national sovereignty and independence, of equality and the dignity of man.”
A half-century into this independence era, it is long past time to put aside old stereotypes of an Africa forever mired in poverty and conflict.  The world must recognize Africa’s extraordinary progress.  Today, Africa is one of the fastest-growing regions in the world.  Africa’s middle class is projected to grow to more than one billion consumers.  (Applause.)  With hundreds of millions of mobile phones, surging access to the Internet, Africans are beginning to leapfrog old technologies into new prosperity.  Africa is on the move, a new Africa is emerging.
Propelled by this progress, and in partnership with the world, Africa has achieved historic gains in health.  The rate of new HIV/AIDS infections has plummeted.  African mothers are more likely to survive childbirth and have healthy babies.  Deaths from malaria have been slashed, saving the lives of millions of African children.  Millions have been lifted from extreme poverty.  Africa has led the world in sending more children to school.  In other words, more and more African men, women and children are living with dignity and with hope.  (Applause.) 
And Africa’s progress can also be seen in the institutions that bring us together today.  When I first came to Sub-Saharan Africa as a President, I said that Africa doesn’t need strongmen, it needs strong institutions.  (Applause.)  And one of those institutions can be the African Union.  Here, you can come together, with a shared commitment to human dignity and development.  Here, your 54 nations pursue a common vision of an “integrated, prosperous and peaceful Africa.”
As Africa changes, I’ve called on the world to change its approach to Africa.  (Applause.)  So many Africans have told me, we don’t want just aid, we want trade that fuels progress.  We don’t want patrons, we want partners who help us build our own capacity to grow.  (Applause.)  We don’t want the indignity of dependence, we want to make our own choices and determine our own future.
As President, I’ve worked to transform America’s relationship with Africa -- so that we’re truly listening to our African friends and working together, as equal partners.  And I’m proud of the progress that we’ve made.  We’ve boosted American exports to this region, part of trade that supports jobs for Africans and Americans.  To sustain our momentum -- and with the bipartisan support of some of the outstanding members of Congress who are here today -- 20 of them who are here today -- I recently signed the 10-year renewal of the African Growth and Opportunity Act.  (Applause.)  And I want to thank them all.  Why don't they stand very briefly so you can see them, because they’ve done outstanding work.  (Applause.) 
We’ve launched major initiatives to promote food security, and public health and access to electricity, and to prepare the next generation of African leaders and entrepreneurs --investments that will help fuel Africa’s rise for decades to come.  Last year, as the Chairwoman noted, I welcomed nearly 50 African presidents and prime ministers to Washington so we could begin a new chapter of cooperation.  And by coming to the African Union today, I’m looking to build on that commitment.  
I believe Africa’s rise is not just important for Africa, it's important to the entire world.  We will not be able to meet the challenges of our time -- from ensuring a strong global economy to facing down violent extremism, to combating climate change, to ending hunger and extreme poverty -- without the voices and contributions of one billion Africans.  (Applause.)   
Now, even with Africa’s impressive progress, we must acknowledge that many of these gains rest on a fragile foundation.  Alongside new wealth, hundreds of millions of Africans still endure extreme poverty.  Alongside high-tech hubs of innovation, many Africans are crowded into shantytowns without power or running water -- a level of poverty that’s an assault on human dignity.
Moreover, as the youngest and fastest-growing continent, Africa’s population in the coming decades will double to some two billion people, and many of them will be young, under 18.  Now, on the one hand, this could bring tremendous opportunities as these young Africans harness new technologies and ignite new growth and reforms.  Economists will tell you that countries, regions, continents grow faster with younger populations.  It's a demographic edge and advantage -- but only if those young people are being trained.  We need only to look at the Middle East and North Africa to see that large numbers of young people with no jobs and stifled voices can fuel instability and disorder.
I suggest to you that the most urgent task facing Africa today and for decades ahead is to create opportunity for this next generation.  (Applause.)  And this will be an enormous undertaking.  Africa will need to generate millions more jobs than it’s doing right now.  And time is of the essence.  The choices made today will shape the trajectory of Africa, and therefore, the world for decades to come.  And as your partner and your friend, allow me to suggest several ways that we can meet this challenge together.  
Africa’s progress will depend on unleashing economic growth -- not just for the few at the top, but for the many, because an essential element of dignity is being able to live a decent life.  (Applause.)  That begins with a job.  And that requires trade and investment.
Many of your nations have made important reforms to attract investment -- it’s been a spark for growth.  But in many places across Africa, it’s still too hard to start a venture, still too hard to build a business.  Governments that take additional reforms to make doing business easier will have an eager partner in the United States.  (Applause.)  
And that includes reforms to help Africa trade more with itself -- as the Chairwoman and I discussed before we came out here today -- because the biggest markets for your goods are often right next door.  You don't have to just look overseas for growth, you can look internally.  And our work to help Africa modernize customs and border crossings started with the East African Community -- now we’re expanding our efforts across the continent, because it shouldn’t be harder for African countries to trade with each other than it is for you to trade with Europe and America.  (Applause.)  
Now, most U.S. trade with the region is with just three countries -- South Africa, Nigeria and Angola -- and much of that is in the form of energy.  I want Africans and Americans doing more business together in more sectors, in more countries.  So we’re increasing trade missions to places like Tanzania, Ethiopia Mozambique.  We’re working to help more Africans get their goods to market.  Next year, we’ll host another U.S.-Africa Business Forum to mobilize billions of dollars in new trade and investment -- so we’re buying more of each other’s products and all growing together. 
Now, the United States isn’t the only country that sees your growth as an opportunity.  And that is a good thing.  When more countries invest responsibly in Africa, it creates more jobs and prosperity for us all.  So I want to encourage everybody to do business with Africa, and African countries should want to do business with every country.  But economic relationships can’t simply be about building countries’ infrastructure with foreign labor or extracting Africa’s natural resources.  Real economic partnerships have to be a good deal for Africa -- they have to create jobs and capacity for Africans.  (Applause.)  
And that includes the point that Chairwoman Zuma made about illicit flows with multinationals -- which is one of the reasons that we've been a leading advocate, working with the G7, to assist in making sure that there’s honest accounting when businesses are investing here in Africa, and making sure that capital flows are properly accounted for.  That's the kind of partnership America offers.
Nothing will unlock Africa’s economic potential more than ending the cancer of corruption.  (Applause.)  And you are right that it is not just a problem of Africa, it is a problem of those who do business with Africa.  It is not unique to Africa -- corruption exists all over the world, including in the United States.  But here in Africa, corruption drains billions of dollars from economies that can't afford to lose billions of dollars -- that's money that could be used to create jobs and build hospitals and schools.  And when someone has to pay a bribe just to start a business or go to school, or get an official to do the job they’re supposed to be doing anyway -- that’s not “the African way.”  (Applause.)  It undermines the dignity of the people you represent. 
Only Africans can end corruption in their countries.  As African governments commit to taking action, the United States will work with you to combat illicit financing, and promote good governance and transparency and rule of law.  And we already have strong laws in place that say to U.S. companies, you can't engage in bribery to try to get business -- which not all countries have.  And we actually enforce it and police it.
And let me add that criminal networks are both fueling corruption and threatening Africa’s precious wildlife -- and with it, the tourism that many African economies count on.  So America also stands with you in the fight against wildlife trafficking.  That's something that has to be addressed.  (Applause.)  
But, ultimately, the most powerful antidote to the old ways of doing things is this new generation of African youth.  History shows that the nations that do best are the ones that invest in the education of their people.  (Applause.)  You see, in this information age, jobs can flow anywhere, and they typically will flow to where workers are literate and highly skilled and online. And Africa’s young people are ready to compete.  I've met them -- they are hungry, they are eager.  They’re willing to work hard.  So we've got to invest in them.  As Africa invests in education, our entrepreneurship programs are helping innovators start new businesses and create jobs right here in Africa.  And the men and women in our Young African Leaders Initiative today will be the leaders who can transform business and civil society and governments tomorrow.  
Africa’s progress will depend on development that truly lifts countries from poverty to prosperity -- because people everywhere deserve the dignity of a life free from want.  A child born in Africa today is just as equal and just as worthy as a child born in Asia or Europe or America.  At the recent development conference here in Addis, African leadership helped forge a new global compact for financing that fuels development. And under the AU’s leadership, the voice of a united Africa will help shape the world’s next set of development goals, and you’re pursuing a vision of the future that you want for Africa.  
And America’s approach to development -- the central focus of our engagement with Africa -- is focused on helping you build your own capacity to realize that vision.  Instead of just shipping food aid to Africa, we’ve helped more than two million farmers use new techniques to boost their yields, feed more people, reduce hunger.  With our new alliance of government and the private sector investing billions of dollars in African agriculture, I believe we can achieve our goal and lift 50 million Africans from poverty.
Instead of just sending aid to build power plants, our Power Africa initiative is mobilizing billions of dollars in investments from governments and businesses to reduce the number of Africans living without electricity.  Now, an undertaking of this magnitude will not be quick.  It will take many years.  But working together, I believe we can bring electricity to more than 60 million African homes and businesses and connect more Africans to the global economy.  (Applause.)  
Instead of just telling Africa, you’re on your own, in dealing with climate change, we’re delivering new tools and financing to more than 40 African nations to help them prepare and adapt.  By harnessing the wind and sun, your vast geothermal energy and rivers for hydropower, you can turn this climate threat into an economic opportunity.  And I urge Africa to join us in rejecting old divides between North and South so we can forge a strong global climate agreement this year in Paris.  Because sparing some of the world’s poorest people from rising seas, more intense droughts, shortages of water and food is a matter of survival and a matter of human dignity.
Instead of just sending medicine, we’re investing in better treatments and helping Africa prevent and treat diseases.  As the United States continues to provide billions of dollars in the fight against HIV/AIDS, and as your countries take greater ownership of health programs, we’re moving toward a historic accomplishment -- the first AIDS-free generation.  (Applause.)  And if the world learned anything from Ebola, it’s that the best way to prevent epidemics is to build strong public health systems that stop diseases from spreading in the first place.  So America is proud to partner with the AU and African countries in this mission.  Today, I can announce that of the $1 billion that the United States is devoting to this work globally, half will support efforts here in Africa.  (Applause.)  
I believe Africa’s progress will also depend on democracy, because Africans, like people everywhere, deserve the dignity of being in control of their own lives.  (Applause.)  We all know what the ingredients of real democracy are.  They include free and fair elections, but also freedom of speech and the press, freedom of assembly.  These rights are universal.  They’re written into African constitutions.  (Applause.)  The African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights declares that “every individual shall have the right to the respect of the dignity inherent in a human being.”  From Sierra Leone, Ghana, Benin, to Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, democracy has taken root.  In Nigeria, more than 28 million voters bravely cast their ballots and power transferred as it should -- peacefully.  (Applause.)   
Yet at this very moment, these same freedoms are denied to many Africans.  And I have to proclaim, democracy is not just formal elections.  (Applause.)  When journalists are put behind bars for doing their jobs, or activists are threatened as governments crack down on civil society -- (applause) -- then you may have democracy in name, but not in substance.  (Applause.)   And I'm convinced that nations cannot realize the full promise of independence until they fully protect the rights of their people.
And this is true even for countries that have made important democratic progress.  As I indicated during my visit to Kenya, the remarkable gains that country has made with a new constitution, with its election, cannot be jeopardized by restrictions on civil society.  Likewise, our host, Ethiopians have much to be proud of -- I've been amazed at all the wonderful work that's being done here -- and it's true that the elections that took place here occurred without violence.  But as I discussed with Prime Minister Hailemariam, that’s just the start of democracy.  I believe Ethiopia will not fully unleash the potential of its people if journalists are restricted or legitimate opposition groups can't participate in the campaign process.  And, to his credit, the Prime Minister acknowledged that more work will need to be done for Ethiopia to be a full-fledged, sustainable democracy.  (Applause.)    
So these are conversations we have to have as friends. Our American democracy is not perfect.  We've worked for many years  -- (applause) -- but one thing we do is we continually reexamine to figure out how can we make our democracy better.  And that's a force of strength for us, being willing to look and see honestly what we need to be doing to fulfill the promise of our founding documents.
And every country has to go through that process.  No country is perfect, but we have to be honest, and strive to expand freedoms, to broaden democracy.  The bottom line is that when citizens cannot exercise their rights, the world has a responsibility to speak out.  And America will, even if it’s sometimes uncomfortable -- (applause) -- even when it’s sometimes directed toward our friends. 
And I know that there’s some countries that don't say anything -- (laughter) -- and maybe that's easier for leaders to deal with.  (Laughter.)  But you're kind of stuck with us -- this is how we are.  (Applause.)  We believe in these things and we're going to keep on talking about them. 
And I want to repeat, we do this not because we think our democracy is perfect, or we think that every country has to follow precisely our path.  For more than two centuries since our independence, we’re still working on perfecting our union.  We're not immune from criticism.  When we fall short of our ideals, we strive to do better.  (Applause.)  But when we speak out for our principles, at home and abroad, we stay true to our values and we help lift up the lives of people beyond our borders.  And we think that's important.  And it's especially important, I believe, for those of us of African descent, because we've known what it feels like to be on the receiving end of injustice.  We know what it means to be discriminated against.  (Applause.)  We know what it means to be jailed.  So how can we stand by when it's happening to somebody else? 
I'll be frank with you, it can't just be America that's talking about these things.  Fellow African countries have to talk about these things.  (Applause.)  Just as other countries championed your break from colonialism, our nations must all raise our voices when universal rights are being denied.  For if we truly believe that Africans are equal in dignity, then Africans have an equal right to freedoms that are universal -- that’s a principle we all have to defend.  (Applause.)  And it's not just a Western idea; it's a human idea.
I have to also say that Africa’s democratic progress is also at risk when leaders refuse to step aside when their terms end.  (Applause.)  Now, let me be honest with you -- I do not understand this.  (Laughter.)  I am in my second term.  It has been an extraordinary privilege for me to serve as President of the United States.  I cannot imagine a greater honor or a more interesting job.  I love my work.  But under our Constitution, I cannot run again.  (Laughter and applause.)  I can't run again.  I actually think I'm a pretty good President -- I think if I ran I could win.  (Laughter and applause.)  But I can't.
So there’s a lot that I'd like to do to keep America moving, but the law is the law.  (Applause.)  And no one person is above the law.  Not even the President.  (Applause.)  And I'll be honest with you -- I’m looking forward to life after being President.  (Laughter.)  I won't have such a big security detail all the time.  (Laughter.)  It means I can go take a walk.  I can spend time with my family.  I can find other ways to serve.  I can visit Africa more often.  (Applause.)  The point is, I don't understand why people want to stay so long.  (Laughter.)  Especially when they’ve got a lot of money.  (Laughter and applause.)
When a leader tries to change the rules in the middle of the game just to stay in office, it risks instability and strife -- as we’ve seen in Burundi.  (Applause.)  And this is often just a first step down a perilous path.  And sometimes you’ll hear leaders say, well, I'm the only person who can hold this nation together.  (Laughter.)  If that's true, then that leader has failed to truly build their nation.  (Applause.)  
You look at Nelson Mandela -- Madiba, like George Washington, forged a lasting legacy not only because of what they did in office, but because they were willing to leave office and transfer power peacefully.  (Applause.)  And just as the African Union has condemned coups and illegitimate transfers of power, the AU’s authority and strong voice can also help the people of Africa ensure that their leaders abide by term limits and their constitutions.  (Applause.)  Nobody should be president for life.  
And your country is better off if you have new blood and new ideas.  (Applause.)  I'm still a pretty young man, but I know that somebody with new energy and new insights will be good for my country.  (Applause.)  It will be good for yours, too, in some cases.  
Africa’s progress will also depend on security and peace -- because an essential part of human dignity is being safe and free from fear.  In Angola, Mozambique, Liberia, Sierra Leone, we’ve seen conflicts end and countries work to rebuild.  But from Somalia and Nigeria to Mali and Tunisia, terrorists continue to target innocent civilians.  Many of these groups claim the banner of religion, but hundreds of millions of African Muslims know that Islam means peace.  (Applause.)  And we must call groups like al Qaeda, ISIL, al-Shabaab, Boko Haram -- we must call them what they are -- murderers.  (Applause.)  
In the face of threats, Africa -- and the African Union --has shown leadership.  Because of the AU force in Somalia, 
al-Shabaab controls less territory and the Somali government is growing stronger.  In central Africa, the AU-led mission continues to degrade the Lord’s Resistance Army.  In the Lake Chad Basin, forces from several nations -- with the backing of the AU -- are fighting to end Boko Haram’s senseless brutality.  And today, we salute all those who serve to protect the innocent, including so many brave African peacekeepers.
Now, as Africa stands against terror and conflict, I want you to know that the United States stands with you.  With training and support, we’re helping African forces grow stronger. The United States is supporting the AU’s efforts to strengthen peacekeeping, and we’re working with countries in the region to deal with emerging crises with the African Peacekeeping Rapid Response Partnership.
The world must do more to help as well.  This fall at the United Nations, I will host a summit to secure new commitments to strengthen international support for peacekeeping, including here in Africa.  And building on commitments that originated here in the AU, we’ll work to develop a new partnership between the U.N. and the AU that can provide reliable support for AU peace operations.  If African governments and international partners step up with strong support, we can transform how we work together to promote security and peace in Africa. 
Our efforts to ensure our shared security must be matched by a commitment to improve governance.  Those things are connected. Good governance is one of the best weapons against terrorism and instability.  Our fight against terrorist groups, for example, will never be won if we fail to address legitimate grievances that terrorists may try to exploit, if we don’t build trust with all communities, if we don’t uphold the rule of law.  There’s a saying, and I believe it is true -- if we sacrifice liberty in the name of security, we risk losing both.  (Applause.)    
This same seriousness of purpose is needed to end conflicts. In the Central African Republic, the spirit of dialogue recently shown by ordinary citizens must be matched by leaders committed to inclusive elections and a peaceful transition.  In Mali, the comprehensive peace agreement must be fulfilled.  And leaders in Sudan must know their nation will never truly thrive so long as they wage war against their own people -- the world will not forget about Darfur.
In South Sudan, the joy of independence has descended into the despair of violence.  I was there at the United Nations when we held up South Sudan as the promise of a new beginning. And neither Mr. Kiir, nor Mr. Machar have shown, so far, any interest in sparing their people from this suffering, or reaching a political solution.  
Yesterday, I met with leaders from this region.  We agree that, given the current situation, Mr. Kiir and Mr. Machar must reach an agreement by August 17th -- because if they do not, I believe the international community must raise the costs of intransigence.  And the world awaits the report of the AU Commission of Inquiry, because accountability for atrocities must be part of any lasting peace in Africa’s youngest nation.  (Applause.)  
And finally, Africa’s progress will depend on upholding the human rights of all people -- for if each of us is to be treated with dignity, each of us must be sure to also extend that same dignity to others.  As President, I make it a point to meet with many of our Young African Leaders.  And one was a young man from Senegal.  He said something wonderful about being together with so many of his African brothers and sisters.  He said, “Here, I have met Africa, the [Africa] I’ve always believed in.  She’s beautiful.  She’s young.  She’s full of talent and motivation and ambition.”  I agree. 
Africa is the beautiful, talented daughters who are just as capable as Africa’s sons.  (Applause.)  And as a father, I believe that my two daughters have to have the same chance to pursue their dreams as anybody’s son -- and that same thing holds true for girls here in Africa.  (Applause.)  Our girls have to be treated the same. 
We can’t let old traditions stand in the way. The march of history shows that we have the capacity to broaden our moral imaginations.  We come to see that some traditions are good for us, they keep us grounded, but that, in our modern world, other traditions set us back.  When African girls are subjected to the mutilation of their bodies, or forced into marriage at the ages of 9 or 10 or 11 -- that sets us back.  That's not a good tradition.  It needs to end.  (Applause.)   
When more than 80 percent of new HIV cases in the hardest-hit countries are teenage girls, that’s a tragedy; that sets us back.  So America is beginning a partnership with 10 African countries -- Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe -- to keep teenage girls safe and AIDS-free.  (Applause.)  And when girls cannot go to school and grow up not knowing how to read or write -- that denies the world future women engineers, future women doctors, future women business owners, future women presidents -- that sets us all back.  (Applause.)  That's a bad tradition -- not providing our girls the same education as our sons.  
I was saying in Kenya, nobody would put out a football team and then just play half the team.  You’d lose.  (Applause.)  the same is true when it comes to getting everybody and education.  You can't leave half the team off -- our young women.  So as part of America’s support for the education and the health of our daughters, my wife, Michelle, is helping to lead a global campaign, including a new effort in Tanzania and Malawi, with a simple message -- Let Girls Learn -- let girls learn so they grow up healthy and they grow up strong.  (Applause.)  And that will be good for families.  And they will raise smart, healthy children, and that will be good for every one of your nations.  
Africa is the beautiful, strong women that these girls grow up to become.  The single best indicator of whether a nation will succeed is how it treats its women.  (Applause.)  When women have health care and women have education, families are stronger, communities are more prosperous, children do better in school, nations are more prosperous.  Look at the amazing African women here in this hall.  (Applause.)  If you want your country to grow and succeed, you have to empower your women.  And if you want to empower more women, America will be your partner.  (Applause.) 
Let’s work together to stop sexual assault and domestic violence.  Let’s make clear that we will not tolerate rape as a weapon of war -- it’s a crime.  (Applause.)  And those who commit it must be punished.  Let’s lift up the next generation of women leaders who can help fight injustice and forge peace and start new businesses and create jobs -- and some might hire some men, too.  (Laughter.)   We’ll all be better off when women have equal futures.
And Africa is the beautiful tapestry of your cultures and ethnicities and races and religions.  Last night, we saw this amazing dance troupe made up of street children who had formed a dance troupe and they performed for the Prime Minister and myself.  And there were 80 different languages and I don't know how many ethnic groups.  And there were like 30 different dances that were being done.  And the Prime Minister was trying to keep up with -- okay, I think that one is -- (laughter) -- and they were moving fast.  And that diversity here in Ethiopia is representative of diversity all throughout Africa.  (Applause.)  And that's a strength. 
Now, yesterday, I had the privilege to view Lucy -- you may know Lucy -- she’s our ancestor, more than 3 million years old.  (Applause.)  In this tree of humanity, with all of our branches and diversity, we all go back to the same root.  We’re all one family -- we're all one tribe.  And yet so much of the suffering in our world stems from our failure to remember that -- to not recognize ourselves in each other.  (Applause.)   
We think because somebody’s skin is slightly different, or their hair is slightly different, or their religious faith is differently expressed, or they speak a different language that it justifies somehow us treating them with less dignity.  And that becomes the source of so many of our problems.  And we think somehow that we make ourselves better by putting other people down.  And that becomes the source of so many of our problems.  When we begin to see other as somehow less than ourselves -- when we succumb to these artificial divisions of faith or sect or tribe or ethnicity -- then even the most awful abuses are justified in the minds of those who are thinking in those ways.  And in the end, abusers lose their own humanity, as well.  (Applause.)   
Nelson Mandela taught us, “to be free is not merely to cast off one’s chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others.”
Every one of us is equal.  Every one of us has worth.  Every one of us matters.  And when we respect the freedom of others -- no matter the color of their skin, or how they pray or who they are or who they love -- we are all more free.  (Applause.)  Your dignity depends on my dignity, and my dignity depends on yours.  Imagine if everyone had that spirit in their hearts.  Imagine if governments operated that way.  (Applause.)  Just imagine what the world could look like -- the future that we could bequeath these young people. 
Yes, in our world, old thinking can be a stubborn thing.  That's one of the reasons why we need term limits -- old people think old ways.  And you can see my grey hair, I'm getting old.  (Laughter.)  The old ways can be stubborn.  But I believe the human heart is stronger.  I believe hearts can change.  I believe minds can open.  That’s how change happens.  That’s how societies move forward.  It's not always a straight line -- step by halting step -- sometimes you go forward, you move back a little bit.   But I believe we are marching, we are pointing towards ideals of justice and equality. 
That’s how your nations won independence -- not just with rifles, but with principles and ideals.  (Applause.)  That's how African Americans won our civil rights.  That's how South Africans -- black and white -- tore down apartheid.  That's why I can stand before you today as the first African American President of the United States.  (Applause.)  
New thinking.  Unleashing growth that creates opportunity.  Promoting development that lifts all people out of poverty.  Supporting democracy that gives citizens their say.  Advancing the security and justice that delivers peace.  Respecting the human rights of all people.  These are the keys to progress -- not just in Africa, but around the world.  And this is the work that we can do together.
And I am hopeful.  As I prepare to return home, my thoughts are with that same young man from Senegal, who said:  Here, I have met Africa, the [Africa] I’ve always believed in.  She’s beautiful and young, full of talent and motivation and ambition. To which I would simply add, as you build the Africa you believe in, you will have no better partner, no better friend than the United States of America.  (Applause.)   
God bless Africa.  God bless the United States of America.  Thank you very much, everybody.  Thank you.  (Applause.) 
2:54 P.M. EAT

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January 2022