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Human Rights Crucial, but Exploited for Political Aims, Interference in Internal State Affairs, Third Committee Told as It Debates United Nations Mandate Holders

While conflict, climate change and chaotic migration had reinforced the world’s need for the United Nations human rights machinery, that system was at risk of abuse due to the many pressures arising from concurrent crises, delegates warned the Third Committee today (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural), as they debated the Organization’s special procedures and mandates today.

Canada’s representative said exceptional or unique circumstances continued to erode the universal nature of human rights, a trend that often led to greater inequality, injustice, violence and death.  Egypt’s representative, too, said the world was witnessing an escalation of human rights violations, with huge numbers of people fleeing conflict and crossing borders.  But countries failing to protect human rights were using related instruments for political aims, and intervening in States’ domestic affairs.

The politics surrounding human rights instruments was also addressed by India’s representative, who noted that nearly half of the thematic mandate holders came from one region, while the reliance on voluntary funding to support the Special Procedures system privileged some mandates over others, and could have adverse impacts on their perceived independence.  He expressed concern that the United Nations human rights machinery had divided States and was being used as a political tool.

Turning from the broader political context in which it was operating to the specific situations that United Nations special procedures sought to address, the European Union’s representative singled out events in Syria for attention.  Excessive and disproportionate attacks against civilians, humanitarian and health care personnel and infrastructure must be brought to justice.  She condemned mass killings and other atrocities by Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL/Da’esh) terrorists.  “Religious belief should not justify the use of terrorism and violence,” she said, encouraging religious leaders to do all in their power to prevent such acts.

The observer for the Holy See, meanwhile, cautioned that “religion becomes a source of discrimination when it is used and abused to define national identity and unity”.

Espousing a practical, rather than ideological approach to realizing human rights, Singapore’s representative noted that a one-size-fits-all approach could not address human rights issues, adding “just as no two people are exactly alike, no two societies, communities or States are exactly alike”.

Along those lines, China’s representative urged respect for countries’ choice of rights protection modalities that were tailored to their national circumstances.  He opposed double standards on human rights issues, and interference in State affairs under their pretext.  Dialogue should be conducted on the basis of equality and mutual learning pursued in an open, inclusive manner.

Also speaking were representatives of the United States, Colombia, Russian Federation, Libya, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, Brazil, Norway, Viet Nam, Qatar, Iraq, Cyprus, Myanmar, Greece, Eritrea, Nepal, Japan, Rwanda, Kazakhstan, Iran, Australia, Algeria, Palau, Sudan, Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Serbia, Bangladesh, Ukraine, Liechtenstein, Cuba, Venezuela, Azerbaijan, Malawi, Morocco, Kuwait, and Philippines, as well as an observer of the State of Palestine.

An official of the Food and Agriculture Organization also addressed the Committee.

Speaking in exercise of the right of reply were representatives of Bahrain, Turkey, Russian Federation, China, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Ukraine, Cyprus, Israel, and Japan.  An observer of the State of Palestine also spoke.

The Third Committee will reconvene at 10 a.m. on Tuesday, 1 November, to begin its discussion on racism and self-determination.

The Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural) met today to continue its debate on the promotion and protection of human rights.  For further information, see Press Release GA/SHC/4172.

Statements

JOANNE ADAMSON, European Union, stressing that the Syrian regime had the primary responsibility to protect civilians, condemned the excessive and disproportionate attacks against them, as well as humanitarian and healthcare personnel and infrastructure.  The perpetrators of such war crimes must be brought to justice.  In the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the Government deprived its people of political, economic, social and cultural rights, while refusing to engage with the international community.  She urged the Government to implement recommendations by the Commission of Inquiry.  On Burundi, she expressed regret over the Government’s decision to suspend cooperation with the Office of the High commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), and intention to withdraw from the Rome Statue.

She went on to remind China of its international human rights obligations, notably to allow human rights defenders and lawyers to pursue their activities and ensure an enabling environment for civil society.  In the Russian Federation, the space for independent civil society was shrinking while human rights defenders and independent journalists faced harassment.  Turning to Da’esh, she condemned the atrocities, mass killings, use of sexual violence and other abuses perpetrated by the terrorist group against civilians.  “Religious belief should not justify the use of terrorism and violence,” she said, encouraging religious leaders to do all in their power to prevent such acts.

SARAH MENDELSON (United States) deplored human rights violations in a number of countries, including in Syria and called on the Syrian Government to stop such violations and attacks immediately.  Further, she called on other countries in conflict to guarantee humanitarian access, also urging them to better protect minorities and civil society.

MIGUEL CAMILO RUIZ BLANCO (Colombia), recalling his country’s achievements in ending its protracted conflict said peace had resulted in less displacement and greater education and development.  Further, redress had been provided to victims of the conflict and the rule of law had been strengthened.  No amnesty had been granted to perpetrators of serious crimes

Ms. SHLYCHKOVA (Russian Federation) said the disproportionate use of force by police and the issue of solitary confinement were among those that the United States had yet to address.  Those authorities had been silent amid an increase of neo-Nazi groups.  In the European Union, there had been an increase in “Waffen-SS legionnaires” and memorials to Holocaust victims had been desecrated.  The Russian Federation had seen an increase in child trafficking, sexual violence, child pornography, domestic violence and the baseless removal of children from mixed families, she said, adding that in Norway, the rights of children to freedom of belief was being violated, with Muslims being forced to eat pork and attend church.  In the United Kingdom, violence against children had increased, while in Ukraine and the Baltic States, Germany and the United Kingdom, the freedom of speech had been violated.

IBRAHIM K. M. ALMABRUK (Libya) said that despite difficult circumstances, his country was keen to protect human rights, citing its commitment to international instruments as the guiding principle.  During the transitional period, Libya had felt instability and therefore urged the Human Rights Council to provide further support to the relevant bodies, which would help Libya promote its legal frameworks, and thus, justice.  Libya had become a transit country for migrants crossing to Europe and it was making every effort to prevent illegal trafficking, supporting activities whereby migrants could be voluntarily repatriated.  But Libya could not achieve any of those objectives without international cooperation

Ms. YOTDAMNOEN (Thailand), associating herself with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), said progress had been made in mainstreaming human rights at the national level, in line with international obligations.  Achievements included laws on anti-trafficking and access to justice.  She attached great importance to the follow‑up of recommendations by the Universal Periodic Review, expressing support for increased regional and international cooperation, particularly of technical nature, and capacity building.

Mr. RAFEE (United Arab Emirates), outlining measures being taken at the national level to promote human rights and tolerance, pointed to achievements in economic development and women’s empowerment.  The Government attached great importance to gender equality and had strengthened women’s political participation, including at the ministerial level.  Progress had been made in protecting children’s rights, he said, citing an increase in school enrolment.

CARLOS SERGIO SOBRAL DUARTE (Brazil), stressing that human rights were crucial for the implementation of all Sustainable Development Goals, said universal enjoyment of human rights meant that no one was left behind.  However, serious human rights violations persisted, including around gender identity, migration and privacy.  He urged updating protection of the right to privacy in collaboration with the private sector to take into account the latest technological advances.

IHAB MOUSTAFA AWAD MOUSTAFA (Egypt) said the world was witnessing an escalation of human rights violations, with huge numbers of people fleeing conflict and crossing borders.  Countries failing to protect human rights were using human rights instruments for political aims, intervening in States’ domestic affairs.  The United States, for example, had abused the use of force, not only against migrants, but against citizens of African origin.  It also had the largest number of detainees and there was racial discrimination in the criminal justice system.  He expressed deep concern at the European Union’s practices in defiance of international humanitarian law, using force against refugees in certain countries.

MAY-ELIN STENER (Norway) stressed that “conflicts and crisis can never be an excuse for ignoring human rights violations”.  Impunity must end, while efforts to address violent extremism must be in line with international legal obligations.  Freedom of expression was necessary for realizing other human rights and a prerequisite for democracy and good governance.  She expressed dismay that the situation for human rights defenders continued to be difficult and, in some places, was worsening, urging States to protect those who protected the rights of others.  Education was a fundamental human right and Norway had initiated the independent Commission on Financing Education Opportunity, which had submitted its report to the Secretary‑General this year.  Norway also had hosted the sixth World Congress against the Death Penalty in June and urged all States to take a stand against that practice.

BERNARDITO AUZA, Observer of the Holy See, expressed regret that the right to life continued to be debated rather than prioritized.  He welcomed the report by the Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate living standard and reiterated his opposition to the death penalty, which he said fostered vengeance, not justice.  The report of the Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief had shown that the freedom of religion was being trampled on and ridiculed in many parts of the world, including by religious communities themselves.  “Religion becomes a source of discrimination when it is used and abused to define national identity and unity,” he said, calling for renewed and sustained action to protect and promote freedom of religion or belief.

NGUYEN PHUONG NGA (Viet Nam), while noting that political, economic, social and cultural rights must be treated equally, said promoting such rights at the international community required respect for States’ sovereign rights and greater mutual understanding, trust and cooperation.  At the national level, Viet Nam had done its best to preserve the environment of peace and stability, promote sustainable development and safeguard human rights.  Placing people at the centre of policies, the Government had strengthened the legal system and institutions.  However, Viet Nam suffered from the impact of drought, salinization and floods, hindering people’s right to food, health, education and adequate housing, she said, calling for international assistance.

TERRENCE TEO (Singapore) noted that a one-size-fits-all approach could not address human rights issues, adding “just as no two people are exactly alike, no two societies, communities or States are exactly alike”.  His Government’s approach had been to build a fair and inclusive society preserving social harmony, and taking a practical, not ideological, approach to realizing human rights.  At times, the Government had had to intervene for the common good, taking steps unpopular with a section of the community.  Singapore was determined to foster a multi-racial, fair and just society and was therefore tough on racial and religious extremists.  Its laws stressed that freedom of expression came with accompanying responsibilities.  Race and religion remained very sensitive matters, and now, more than ever, the Government must engage with different groups and their competing interests deeply and pragmatically.

ALANOUD QASSIM M. A. AL-TEMIMI (Qatar) said her country’s vision of human rights was underpinned by the international conventions to which it had acceded, stressing that Qatar ranked first among Arab States on the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) human development index.  Qatar recognized its challenges as opportunities rather than obstacles.  She expressed concern at tension in Palestinian territories, as the occupying Power continued to confiscate lands and deprive Palestinians of the right to practice their religion.  The Syrian people had endured atrocities for the past five years as a result of the Syrian regime’s violation of all aspects of international law, and continued policy of torture, detention and killing.

MICHAEL GRANT (Canada) said crises and “exceptional” or “unique” circumstances continued to erode the universality of human rights.  That trend often led to greater inequality, injustice, violence and death.  Impunity was a major impediment to the realization of human rights and achievement of sustainable development, he said, expressing concern about a growing lack of recognition and appreciation for diversity, as well as an increasing number of restrictions imposed on civil society.

Mr. AL-HUSSAINI (Iraq) said the Government had allowed international media to establish offices in the country, and women were permitted full rights in the political and diplomatic fields.  Iraq had also taken measures to implement the rights of the child and had acceded to two voluntary protocols.  The right to belief was assured in Iraq, and at a time when it was working to promote human rights, it was also waging war against the Da’esh terrorist group.  That war, however, did not distract from providing for all citizens, he said, thanking those who had supported Iraq’s membership of the Human Rights Council

MENELAOS MENELAOU (Cyprus), associating with the European Union, said that protecting cultural heritage was imperative in protecting human rights.  He recalled that the International Criminal Court’s decision in Prosecutor v. Al Mahdi had established the precedent of prosecuting attacks on religious sites as war crimes.  He also expressed concern about rights violations against Cypriots living under Turkish occupation, where textbooks were censored, churches and cemeteries vandalized and worshippers intimidated.  The issue of missing persons was a major concern, as more than two thirds of the 2,001 missing persons were still unidentified.  He called on Turkey to provide full access to all areas and to release information concerning deliberate removal of the remains of missing persons.

THANT SIN (Myanmar), associating himself with ASEAN, said every country had the right to choose its economic and social path, although collective effort was needed to face common challenges and seize opportunities in dealing with human rights issues.  The international community’s work to promote and protect human rights should be carried out through dialogue in a fair and equal manner with objectivity, impartiality and respect for national sovereignty.  As a nation emerging from internal strife, Myanmar believed that conflict, discrimination and injustices would only end when rule of law and justice flourished.  In that respect, the Government was reviewing outdated laws, and in September, had abolished provisions of the Ward and Village Track Administration Law, which had required citizens to report overnight guests to authorities.  The Government also had prioritized ratifying several core international human rights treaties and their protocols.

GEORGIOS POULEAS (Greece), endorsing the European Union’s position, stressed the importance of a strong multilateral human rights system that encouraged cooperation.  Greece had adopted a human rights-based approach to sustainable economic growth, prioritizing the most vulnerable people.  Greece would continue its coordinated response to the migrant/refugee crisis, he said, while emphasizing the need for burden sharing and addressing root causes.  He expressed great concern over the human rights situation in Cyprus, particularly the situation of missing persons and violations of property rights.  The widespread looting and destruction of cultural sites in the occupied part of the island was a grave concern.  Recent events had reinforced Greece’s position that full withdrawal of the Turkish occupation forces and elimination of the anachronistic system of guarantees were fundamental conditions for resolving the issue.

ZEBIB GEBREKIDAN (Eritrea) said his country had strengthened its partnership with OHCHR, and in May, signed an agreement with the United Nations to enhance its national capacity in the implementation of Universal Periodic Review commitments.  Human rights must be addressed through genuine dialogue and engagement, he said, calling country-specific mandates politicized, confrontational and counterproductive.  He voiced concern over double standards in the region and globally, noting that States which had harassed Eritrea over its human rights record had given the green light to a regime in the region to commit grave human rights violations.  Discussions on human rights could not be meaningful without addressing poverty, instability, occupation and unjustified sanctions.

ILLA MAINALI (Nepal) said her country had implemented comprehensive national policies and action plans to protect the rights of children and persons with disabilities.  A zero tolerance policy was in place for violence against women, and efforts to protect civil society and human rights defenders had been strengthened.  Further, the Government had created the Commission of Investigation on Disappeared Persons, and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.  Recognizing the importance of the Universal Periodic Review, Nepal had made progress in implementing its recommendations, she said, stressing the need to protect migrants’ rights.

JUN SAITO (Japan), noting that the human rights situation in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea had not improved, said his country and the European Union would table a draft resolution on that issue for the twelfth year.  The abduction of foreign nationals was among the most serious human rights violations of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.  The deteriorating humanitarian and human rights situation in Syria was also of deep concern, as was the situation in Yemen, amid alleged violations of international human rights and humanitarian laws.  Japan supported United Nations efforts to mediate in that conflict and bring about peace and stability.

JEANNE D’ARC BYAJE (Rwanda) expressed concern about human rights violations that had arisen from the high number of migrants and displaced persons.  Recalling the grave human rights violations experienced during the genocide against the Tutsi, she attached great importance to the protection of all human rights.  Rwanda had made progress in realizing the right to development and providing basic social services, as well as in promoting the right to freedom of expression, with a significant increase in the number of newspapers and radio stations in the country.  The number of online media outlets had grown, she said, citing other gains made in strengthening the freedom of association of civil society organizations, human rights defenders and political parties.

Ms. IZANOVA (Kazakhstan), underscoring that the Government worked closely with the international human rights mechanisms, stressed the importance of realizing the right to freedom of expression.  Kazakhstan had implemented recommendations of the special procedures, she said, emphasizing the importance the Government attached to promoting and maintaining interreligious and interethnic peace.

MAYANK JOSHI (India) reiterated the need for mandate holders to remain independent and to focus on strengthening national capacities.  They also must represent diverse geographic areas, per Human Rights Council resolution 5/1.  Regrettably, nearly half of the thematic mandate holders came from one region, while the reliance on voluntary funding to support the Special Procedures system privileged some mandates over others and could have adverse impacts on their perceived independence.  He expressed concern that the United Nations human rights machinery had divided States and was being used as a political tool.  He welcomed the establishment of a new mandate on the right to development, which was essential for the enjoyment of all other human rights.  Special procedures also had a moral and legal obligation to strengthen national and international accountability for eliminating poverty in a time-bound manner, as there was no point in pursuing freedom from fear without achieving freedom from want.  Finally, he emphasized the impact of fair and equitable international trade, finance, investment and intellectual property on human rights, which could only be achieved if developing countries could participate in global decision making and norm setting on an equal footing with developed countries.

Mr. GHAEBI (Iran) cited rampant human rights violations by the United States, including involuntary disappearances, secret CIA detention centres, the Guantanamo centre and drone strikes.  The devastating impact of unfair migration policies also could not be overlooked, while inside the country, the justice system was plagued with systematic incarceration of a disproportionate number of minorities.  Anti-immigrant sentiment and xenophobia were prevalent in European countries, he said, expressing alarm at the lack of safeguards in asylum procedures.  Thousands of migrant children were at grave risk of sexual abuse and trafficking.

GILLIAN BIRD (Australia) said that, if elected to the Human Rights Council, her country would continue to demonstrate its strong commitment to promoting and protecting human rights.  Expressing concern about growing violence and rights violations based on a person’s actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity, she said that while such matters were sensitive for many, no one should face stigmatization, discrimination or violence on any grounds.  Working with a range of partners was important to address international rights violations.  Australia had supported the application of the Youth Coalition of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights during a recent session of the Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations.  While it was regrettable that the matter had been brought to a vote, its passage had shown the commitment by many to increase civil society engagement in the United Nations.

IDRISS BOUASSILA (Algeria) reaffirmed the need to realize all human rights and fundamental freedoms, notably the right to development.  For those deprived of the rights to food, health and education, the invocation of civil and political rights was an empty slogan.  Noting that rights violations persisted worldwide, he said the right to development implied the full realization of the right to self-determination, including full sovereignty over all their natural wealth and resources.  Substantial progress had been made in Algeria to broaden the space for human rights through a series of economic, social and institutional reforms, including laws criminalizing violence against women and children and protecting divorced women.

CALEB OTTO (Palau) said the right to health was enshrined in a number of instruments, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.  The world had committed to achieving universal health coverage through the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, yet efforts to promote mental health lagged.  In too many countries, resource allocation for mental health and psychosocial services represented a small percent of total health expenditures.  Palau challenged the international community to a global commitment toward ensuring that persons needing mental health services received them.

RWAYDA IZZELDIN HAMID ELHASSAN (Sudan) said the importance her country attached to human rights was visible in its accession to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, among other instruments.  Further, national legislation was in line with such international commitments.  For example, Sudan had established legislative and institutional frameworks to promote human rights domestically.  Military law now included a provision against recruiting children, while bodies to protect women and children in armed conflict had been created.  Foreign debt undermined efforts to ensure human rights for all.  Only human rights which enjoyed consensus could be taken into consideration, she said, and the Universal Periodic Review was the best way to understand State concerns in that regard.

MADHUKA WICKRAMARACHCHI (Sri Lanka) said the country was working to advance the transitional justice process and cited efforts to coordinate with the international human rights mechanisms in that context.  A Task Force had been set up to ensure the participation of civil society, as well as accountability and mechanisms for reparations.  Further, a Permanent and Independent Office on Missing Persons had been set up as an essential element in the truth-seeking process.  The Government was working on a Constitution that reflected the country’s diversity, he said, and had worked with the special procedures to address involuntary disappearances, ensure non-recurrence and protect minorities.

Mr. TUMBARE (Zimbabwe) said the country had made progress in promoting economic rights through various measures, including by broadening access to means of production, which allowed more citizens to participate in the mainstream economy.  Recalling that the promotion and protection of human rights was the Government’s primary duty, he reiterated his rejection of interference with State sovereignty under the veil of human rights protection.  He also stressed the importance of respecting countries’ cultures and traditions in the realization of human rights.

RI SONG CHOL (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) said that “human rights mean the sovereignty and the right to independence of countries”.  However, human rights were misused to infringe on State sovereignty, notably in the campaign conducted against the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea by the United States.  The July report of the Department of State and subsequent special list of sanction targets was “the most hostile act ever” committed by that country.  The United States would use economic sanctions to stifle the rights of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea’s overseas workers, even though those people worked in line with labour laws of his own country and those of the country concerned.  People enjoyed full rights under the warm care and love of Comrade Kim Jong Un.  The United Nations should prioritize actions of the United States vassal forces, which had plunged the Middle East into chaos under the guise of human rights and democracy.

ANA ILIĆ (Serbia) reaffirmed the Government’s commitment to cooperate with United Nations human rights mechanisms, noting that Serbia had welcomed visits by Special Rapporteurs, cooperated with treaty bodies and was fulfilling its reporting requirements.  She expressed regret that there had been no progress in the protection of the rights of ethnic communities in the Serbian province of Kosovo and Metohija.  Serbia was committed to dialogue with Pristina, but was concerned that the latter was not engaging in good faith.  In Croatia, too, the Serbian minority was under more frequent attack.  She expected that Croatia would take seriously the criticism of the Council of Europe Advisory Committee opinion on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, and implement its recommendations.  For its part, Serbia would continue to advance legislation that promoted the status of its minorities, non-discrimination and human rights.

MASUD BIN MOMEN (Bangladesh) said his country’s commitment to human rights flowed from the Constitution, which embodied the principles and provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.  The legal and institutional framework in Bangladesh sought to ensure that people enjoyed their rights.  However, like many other least developed countries, Bangladesh faced challenges such as poverty, which prevented people from achieving their economic, social and cultural rights.  Government efforts, such as social safety nets, microfinance and programmes for women’s empowerment and education, had broadened the spectrum of rights to be enjoyed by all.  Citing the principles of universality, non-selectivity and impartiality, he said country-specific resolutions did not improve human rights situations in developing countries.  Rather, the Universal Periodic Review generated dialogue and cooperation.

IHOR YAREMENKO (Ukraine), recalling the aggression his country had been subjected to by the Russian Federation, expressed concern about the detention and interrogation of Ukrainian citizens and the violence and torture they had been made to suffer.  He voiced grave concern about the human rights situation in the Russian Federation, notably the expanded use of surveillance and crackdown on both civil society and the press.  He called for the immediate release of all political prisoners.

KATHRIN NESCHER (Liechtenstein), speaking also on behalf of Australia, Iceland, New Zealand and Switzerland, said the Sustainable Development Goals and indicators were linked to international human rights obligations.  She pointed out that the right to development shared a number of commonalities with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.  Both recognized the centrality of people in development and sought to create an enabling environment for the full realization of all human rights.  They also reaffirmed States’ responsibility to ensure equal opportunities for all citizens.  She called for realizing the right to development in all its facets, stressing that opportunities could be found in exploring the relationship between human rights and sustainable development.

KATHRIN NESCHER (Liechtenstein), speaking also on behalf of Australia, Iceland, New Zealand and Switzerland, said the Sustainable Development Goals and indicators were linked to international human rights obligations.  She pointed out that the right to development shared a number of commonalities with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.  Both recognized the centrality of people in development and sought to create an enabling environment for the full realization of all human rights.  They also reaffirmed States’ responsibility to ensure equal opportunities for all citizens.  She called for realizing the right to development in all its facets, stressing that opportunities could be found in exploring the relationship between human rights and sustainable development.

VILMA THOMAS (Cuba) said the United Nations must be objective in its approach to human rights.  The statement by the United States delegate was arrogant and confrontational, an approach that did not promote or protect human rights.  Cuba’s rights record, by contrast, had been exemplary.  In Cuba, unlike in the United States, the Government did not stifle protesters with teargas or execute people of colour.  Cuba did not abandon homeless people and all of its inhabitants were guaranteed medical care.  The international community must prioritize ending extreme poverty, which had been exacerbated by an unjust global order.  Reaffirming Cuba’s commitment to human rights for all, she said cooperation was needed to bring about the principles of universality and non-selectivity, and to ensure genuine dialogue among countries of the North and South.  In that regard, it was important to do away with double standards in country resolutions.

ROBERT ALEXANDER POVEDA BRITO (Venezuela) said the Government promoted respect for human rights through its legislative and legal practices.  In recent years, it had strengthened the legal order and human rights system.  This year, it would present its Universal Periodic Review, he said, noting that Venezuela had also been re-elected to the Human Right Council — a recognition of its achievements.  Eradicating poverty was a particular focus and the Government had made strides toward that goal.  It had increased school enrolment, reduced maternal mortality and combatted malaria and HIV.  He reiterated the importance of objectivity, non-selectivity and non-politicization in the protection of human rights, condemning country-specific resolutions and reports.

HABIB MIKAYILLI (Azerbaijan) focused on the detrimental effects of armed conflict on cultural heritage and the enjoyment of cultural rights.  He expressed his concern that religious and cultural heritage was often targeted during armed conflict and condemned all such intentional destruction.  The protection and preservation of cultural heritage was not only a legal obligation but also a moral one.  Expressing concern about the increased police killings of African-Americans in the United States, he urged that country to collaborate with relevant international human rights mechanisms.

NECTON D. MHURA (Malawi) said his country had a longstanding commitment to human rights, reflected in its customary laws and teachings. Recognizing the role of good governance and democracy in the realization of human rights, the Government had integrated a rights-based approach in its laws and policies.  It also had recognized the importance of nutrition and quality education in that context, he said, noting that climate change had profoundly affected the economy.  Among other efforts, Malawi had introduced a progressive disability law and addressed attacks on people living with albinism through amendments to the Anatomy Act and Penal Code.

Mr. EL KADDOURI (Morocco) said the Government was committed to promoting and protecting human rights in their universality and totality.  Morocco had undertaken far-reaching reforms as part of a gradual process to establish a culture of rights.  The country had integrated international law into its Constitution, which recognized and enshrined respect for local cultures and criminalized torture.  In 2011, Morocco had set up an inter-ministerial delegation for the coordination of public policy on human rights.  It also had carried out structural reforms and consolidated and multiplied democratic reforms.

WU HAITAO (China), stressing that cooperation must respect States’ sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity, said he opposed the politicization and double standards on human rights issues, as well as interference in internal State affairs under the pretext of human rights.  Dialogue should be conducted on the basis of equality and mutual learning pursued in an open, inclusive manner.  Stressing the right to inclusive development, he said States should capitalize on the opportunity provided by implementation of the 2030 Agenda, prioritizing assistance to developing countries to eliminate poverty and realize the rights to life and development.  In addition, the international community must respect people’s choices, understanding that there was no universally applicable development pathway or human rights standard.  Respect should be given to countries’ autonomous choice of human rights protection modalities that were tailored to their national circumstances.

NADYA RIFAAT RASHEED, observer of the State of Palestine, reiterated her strong support for the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Palestinian Territories Occupied since 1967 and called for United Nations action to hold Israel accountable and address its long record of non-cooperation.  The persistence of that situation, without consequence or remedy, had inflicted immense human suffering and undermined efforts to realize a just peace based on a two-State solution.  Given Israel’s unwillingness to investigate its violations, she called upon the international community to end the culture of impunity, which sent the message that Palestinian lives did not matter.  Seventy years had passed since the question of Palestine was placed on the agenda and it was high time for action to compel Israel to respect its international legal obligations.

Ms. ALZOUMAN (Kuwait), sharing achievements, said the Government had acceded to a number of international human rights instruments and engaged with the related mechanisms.  She deplored the rights violations perpetrated against Palestinians, in breach of international human rights and humanitarian law.  Expressing grave concern about the conflict in Syria, she said Kuwait expressed its support for Syria by hosting refugees and by holding donor conferences.

LOURDES O. YPARRAGUIRRE (Philippines) stressed the need to protect migrants’ rights and maintain the momentum generated by the adoption of the New York Declaration on Refugees and Migrants.  The Global Compact take a human rights-based approach to ensure safe and regular migration, as well as a long-term developmental perspective.  On the concerns expressed about alleged extrajudicial killings in connection with drug-related offenses, she said expressed the Government’s commitment to uphold the rule of law, underscoring the threat that illegal drugs posed to society.

CARLA MUCAVI, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), while recognizing achievements in reducing hunger, drew attention other food-related challenges, such as obesity and malnutrition.  The right to food was a foundation for realizing other human rights, she said, noting that discrimination against women, which restricted their access to land, had detrimental effects on food security.  For its part, FAO provided support to States to improve food systems and to ensure food security.

Right of Reply

The representative of Bahrain, responding to remarks by the United States delegate, reaffirmed her Government’s commitment to the highest standards of human rights protection and cooperation with the United Nations.  Bahrain was committed to an open democratic process that promoted a strong sense of national identity, but had put in place measures to protect the political arena from sectarianism.  Revocation of citizenship occurred in accordance with law.  No person, including those named, had been prosecuted for freedom of expression.

Turkey’s representative, responding to comments by Greece’s delegate, rejected the latter’s recollection of history as selective and one-sided.  Turkish Cypriots had been forced out of Government institutions in 1963 and Turkey had intervened in 1974 to protect Turkish Cypriots from a military coup initiated by Greece.  While supporting the Secretary-General’s efforts to reach a just settlement, he said Greece was exploiting a humanitarian issue for political purposes.  The Immovable Property Commission provided recourse to Greek Cypriots, while cultural heritage issues were addressed by a joint committee.  To the United States delegate, he said his Government had followed due process in addressing the fallout from the coup attempt, and he called for the extradition of the coup’s leadership, who were living abroad.

The representative of the Russian Federation regretted that the representative of the United States had introduced issues to the Third Committee that were not part of its mandate.  The people of Crimea had acceded to the Russian Federation by referendum.  Ukraine’s delegate would be more honest to mention the Ukrainian radicals who had carried out an economic blockade of Crimea, or the situation of the Tatars, who had been ignored by authorities throughout Ukraine’s independence.  She urged the delegates of the United States and the European Union to familiarize themselves with her Government’s position on East Aleppo.

China’s representative opposed the politically motivated and groundless allegations and attacks on the human rights situation in his country by his counterparts from the United States and the European Union, who were using human rights as a geopolitical tool, while remaining silent about their own abuses and those of their allies.  In the United States, guns were ubiquitous, police used force on ethnic minorities, race-based hate crimes continued and the Government violated citizen privacy through surveillance.  Meanwhile, in the European Union, racism against migrants was a serious concern.

The representative of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, rejecting allegations by the United States and the European Union representatives, said the United States had slaughtered children and women abroad under the guise of democracy.  The same applied to the European Union, where refugees were discriminated against and exploited.  To comments by Japan’s representative, he said the issue of abducted citizens had been addressed.  Japan should address its own crimes and apologize.

Ukraine’s representative drew attention to international agreements regarding the unlawfulness of occupation.

The representative of Cyprus expressed concern about the Turkish occupation of territories in Cyprus and called on Turkey to end the occupation immediately.

Israel’s representative deplored the choices made by Palestinians, including the hosting of a terrorist organization and discrimination against women.  Palestinians should promote health and education, rather than incite hate.

Japan’s representative said the question of abducted citizens had not been resolved and called on the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to implement relevant agreements immediately.  Japan was a democratic Government committed to the rule of law.

An observer of Palestine, in response to comments by Israel’s delegate, dismissed claims of incitement.  The cause of violence was the occupation.  It was an outrageous claim that Palestinian children were taught to hate.  The human rights violations outlined were not a Palestinian story, but rather, recognized by the international community.

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea’s delegate rejected comments by Japan’s delegate, urging Japan to apologize for its crimes against humanity and to end rights violations against Korean residents of Japan.

Japan’s delegate responded that his country had no intention of breaking the Stockholm Agreement.  It was regrettable that the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea had not responded to the concerns raised by the Special Rapporteur.

Israel’s representative, responding to comments by the observer of the State of Palestine, said she looked forward to reciting the findings of Palestinian non-Governmental organizations and courts on the use of children for terror.

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At Second Committee Meeting, Delegates Underline Structural Obstacles for Countries in Special Situations

Buffeted by a global economic slowdown, the impacts of climate change and falling commodity prices, least developed and landlocked developing States needed sustained international support, Member States said today as the Second Committee (Economic and Financial) discussed groups of countries in special situations.

Opening the meeting, Thailand’s representative, on behalf of the “Group of  77” developing countries and China, introduced the draft resolution entitled “ICT [information communications technology] for Sustainable Development” (document A/C.2/71/L.15).

Gyan Chandra Acharya, Under-Secretary-General and High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States, then introduced three reports:  “Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the Decade 2011—2020” (A/71/66-E/2016/11); “Charter of the Technology Bank for the Least Developed Countries” (document A/71/363); and “Implementation of the Vienna Programme of Action for Landlocked Developing Countries for the Decade 2014-2024” (document A/71/313).

In the ensuing discussion, Bangladesh’s representative, speaking for the Group of Least Developed Countries, said there remained significant structural obstacles to improvement in the least developed States.  Almost all were food-deficit countries, and lagged behind in science and innovation.  Despite many discouraging facts, however, least developed countries were gradually meeting graduation criteria, with 10 additional States reaching the threshold in March 2015.

Zambia’s representative, speaking for the Group of Landlocked Developing Countries, said land degradation, desertification and deforestation were hindering them from achieving sustainable development.  The countries could not attain development goals without realizing the Vienna Programme of Action.  He pointed to the vulnerability of landlocked developing countries to the volatility of commodity prices, also noting their high transport and transaction costs.

Niger’s representative, continuing the theme of landlocked countries, said that the challenges to be met for those States were beyond the simple difficulties linked to delivering goods in a timely way to major markets.  They were also related to the lack of productive capacities, low levels of investment and the informal nature of the private sector.  Landlocked developing countries would need a more comprehensive development programme in the future.

The representative of the Maldives, speaking for the Alliance of Small Island States, said eight of its members were least developed States and “sea-locked”.  Targeted approaches were necessary to support the efforts of countries in special situations to achieve sustainable development and economic growth.  That also included nations that were both small island developing States and least developed countries, as they faced structural challenges on two fronts.

Also speaking today were representatives from Thailand (for the Group of 77), Lao People’s Democratic Republic (for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations), Haiti (for the Caribbean Community), Paraguay, India, Russian Federation, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Mongolia, Mexico, Viet Nam, Tajikistan, Botswana, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Kuwait, Turkey, Morocco, Myanmar, Tuvalu, Ethiopia, China and Bhutan.

The Second Committee will meet again at 3 p.m. on Thursday, 20 October on the agenda item 17, “Macroeconomic Policy Questions”, and agenda item 18, “Follow-up to and implementation of the outcomes of the International Conferences on Financing for Development.”

Introduction of Draft Resolution

PITCHAPORN LIWJAROEN (Thailand), speaking on behalf of the “Group of 77” developing countries and China, introduced the draft resolution entitled “ICT for Sustainable Development” (A/C.2/71/L.15).  Recognizing the complex nature of the digital divides between and within countries, and between women and men, the draft considered the matter of access in all its dimensions for the world’s next 1.5 billion citizens.  It encouraged international cooperation, technology transfer and dissemination between Governments, the private sector, civil society, the technical community and all other relevant stakeholders.

Presentation of Reports

GYAN CHANDRA ACHARYA, Under-Secretary-General and High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States, introduced the Secretary-General’s report “Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the Decade 2011—2020” (document A/71/66-E/2016/11).  He noted that the international community’s high participation in the least developed country decade showed its willingness to stand by those countries and assist with development.  The private sector and parliamentarians had also demonstrated their support.  The midterm review of implementation found least developed countries had made considerable progress in several areas, including economic growth, benefits from interregional trade, humanitarian and social development, access to education, women’s empowerment and rule of law.  Progress had also been made towards graduation from the least developed status, which some would accomplish within the next couple of years.

However, progress in development was uneven both within and between least developed countries, he said.  Many suffered from high unemployment, public health emergencies and the negative effects of climate change.  Due to the global economic crisis, they were also experiencing a slowdown, with growth rates falling to a level considerably lower than during the period 2001—2010.  The Millennium Development Goal to eradicate poverty was being achieved generally but at a slower pace in least developed countries.  Progress to increase productive capacity was mixed, with many still lacking access to the Internet and mobile phones.  There had been modest improvements in transport and access to electricity but road and rail transport remained underdeveloped.  Total official development assistance (ODA) flows had fallen below pre-2008 levels, prior to the economic crisis.

He then introduced the Secretary-General’s note “Charter of the Technology Bank for the Least Developed Countries” (document A/71/363), and the Secretary-General’s report “Implementation of the Vienna Programme of Action for Landlocked Developing Countries for the Decade 2014—2024” (document A/71/313).

Speaking on the latter, he highlighted the importance of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.  The report stressed the linkage between the Vienna Programme of Action and the 2030 Agenda, as well as other processes including the Paris Agreement on climate change, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, and others.  Gross Domestic Product (GDP) had slowed in recent years, which was a matter of great concern, and many landlocked developing countries had faced trade slowdowns.  A large number of landlocked developing countries were still marginalized in the international system, particularly given the decline in commodity prices.

Landlocked developing countries had nonetheless seen positive development results in recent years, including a decline in the proportion of their citizens living below the poverty line, he continued.  It was important to mobilize elements for infrastructure between landlocked developing countries and transit countries.  Landlocked developing countries still faced the high costs of trade, and trade facilitation initiatives needed to be scaled up, as did ODA, which remained the main form of finance for many of these countries.

Statements

PITCHAPORN LIWJAROEN (Thailand), speaking on behalf of the Group of 77, said it welcomed the political declaration of the recent Midterm Review of the Istanbul Programme of Action.  It would give more strength to the global partnership for development for the least developed countries in all priority areas.  It also would ensure the timely, effective and full implementation of the Istanbul Programme of Action during the remaining decade.

She emphasized that international cooperation was crucial to ensure effective development and meet agreed commitments, such as ODA commitments and the timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis.  Furthermore, foreign direct investment (FDI) was important to helping the Group’s countries build a strong economic base.  Yet less than 2 per cent of global FDI had been directed to its countries and most of those funds went to the extractive industry.

Any unilateral economic measures imposed on least developed countries had to be lifted and totally eliminated, she said.  Those measures negatively impacted the countries’ development and prosperity.  She also reiterated the Group’s appreciation to the Government of Turkey for hosting the Technology Bank.  In order to drive the socioeconomic progress of the landlocked developing countries, it was necessary for States to mainstream the Vienna Programme of Action into national development strategies.  The Group reaffirmed that infrastructure development played a key role in reducing the development costs of the landlocked developing countries.  It welcomed the launch of the Global Infrastructure Forum in April 2016.  It was an important follow-up to the Addis Ababa Action Agenda.  The Forum aimed to enhance coordination among multilateral development banks and their development partners to better develop sustainable, accessible and resilient infrastructure for developing States, including the landlocked least developed countries.

KHIANE PHANSOURIVONG (Lao People’s Democratic Republic), speaking on behalf of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), said that least developed countries and landlocked developing countries continued to face various challenges such as poverty.  They were highly vulnerable to external shocks and the adverse impact of climate change, and needed to be given special priority by the international community.

He said ASEAN believed that the quadrennial comprehensive policy review would need to take into account the special needs and unique challenges of those countries by having a strategic guidance for the United Nations agencies to support them.  The Association needed to narrow the development gap among its members and had adopted various frameworks and declarations to do so.  Countries in special situations needed adequate and predictable financial support from development partners as reflected in the 2030 Agenda and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda.

MARIYAM MIDHFA NAEEM (Maldives), speaking for the Alliance of Small Island States, said that eight of its members were least developed countries and “sea-locked”.  The Alliance reiterated the importance of fully integrating the Istanbul Programme of Action and the Vienna Programme of Action into the 2030 Agenda.  Targeted approaches were necessary to support the efforts of countries in special situations to achieve sustainable development and economic growth.  That also included small island developing States that were also least developed countries as they faced structural challenges on two fronts.

It was important for international organizations and financial institutions to align their support programmes with the 2030 Agenda as the absence of such an alignment would mean that the Agenda could not be successfully implemented, she continued.  Furthermore, income-based indicators did not reflect the advancement or the vulnerabilities of a society as many least developed countries on track for graduation were extremely vulnerable to shocks, she said, adding that “it takes a big storm to wipe out years of hard-earned development gains”.  Sustaining those gains must be a priority.

DENIS REGIS (Haiti), speaking for the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), said his group had paid special attention to the Midterm Review for Least Developed Countries.  The Istanbul Programme of Action must remain a central element for least developed countries.  It was important to ensure that the architecture of global development reinforced coherence at the international, regional and local levels.  Noting that only two least developed countries had graduated from their status since 2011, he said progress was clearly insufficient.  All stakeholders should redouble their efforts to enable graduation.

He expressed regret that many least developed countries had failed to achieve structural change.  More than two-thirds of their population worked in the agricultural sector, which had remained stagnant since 2013.  Also, the integration of those nations into global and regional value chains had remained low.  Foreign direct investment (FDI) had dropped slightly and exports had a strong sectoral concentration, which made them sensitive to external shocks.  All such trends were hindering poverty eradication.  Those countries should make greater use of domestic resource mobilization using public, private, South-South and triangular cooperation.

MASUD BIN MOMEN (Bangladesh), speaking on behalf of the Group of Least Developed Countries, said the reports provided a comprehensive picture of the challenges faced by the least developed countries.  The 2030 Agenda, Addis Ababa Action Agenda, Sendai Framework and the Paris Agreement recognized the vulnerability of the least developed countries.  There had been efforts to strengthen transit networks and trade through air travel and creating an enabling environment for the private sector.  However, the pace of development was slow and uneven, and many least developed countries failed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

There remained significant structural obstacles to improvement in the least developed countries, he continued.  Almost all least developed nations were food-deficit countries, and lagged behind in science and innovation.  Despite many discouraging facts, however, those States were gradually meeting graduation criteria, with 10 additional least developed countries reaching the threshold in March 2015.  There was no alternative to strengthening partnerships at the global level to enhance capacity-building in the least developed countries.  Development partners needed to fulfil their ODA commitments.  Least developed countries also had limited capacity to respond to hazards or shocks, and needed international support.

MR. MUNDANDA (Zambia), speaking for the Group of Landlocked Developing Countries, said land degradation, desertification and deforestation was hindering landlocked countries in achieving sustainable development.  Those countries could not attain the development goals without realizing the Vienna Programme of Action.  He stressed the need for synergy and coherence, which was critical for transforming landlocked countries.  He pointed to the vulnerability of those States to the volatility of commodity prices, also noting their high transport and transaction costs.

The international community must address mainstreaming of the Vienna Programme into development goals to ensure its implementation, he continued.  It was necessary to establish secure and efficient transport systems to reduce costs and enhance competitiveness and full integration into global markets.  As funding for transport infrastructure remained a challenge, he called on the international community to establish infrastructure funding or special windows to meet transport needs.  Also, trade facilitation would lead to lower trade transaction and transport costs.

JUAN MANUEL PEÑA (Paraguay), associating himself with the Group of 77 and Group of Landlocked Developing Countries, said while consideration of the latter group of States had increased in recent years, major challenges persisted.  The Almaty Programme of Action of 2004 and the Vienna Programme of Action of 2014 strengthened international commitment to solve the particular challenges of landlocked developing countries.  Paraguay urged the rapid ratification and implemented trade agreements and called on developed countries to offer trade technology and assistance for developing countries.  The 2030 Agenda must effectively recognize the specific challenges of landlocked countries and cooperate in offering solutions and continuous support.  His country recognized the importance of transport as a method of development.  Regarding the work of the Second Committee, efforts must be doubled to implement the Vienna Programme.  He also urged delegations to strengthen support for landlocked developing countries.

ASHISH SINHA (India) said his nation was fully committed to helping the least developed countries grow and develop rapidly and its partnerships with those States focused on capacity-building, sharing of technological expertise and financial assistance.  In 2008, India was the first emerging market economy to offer a duty-free trade preference scheme for those countries.  There were now 31 beneficiaries of that scheme, by which India provided duty-free and preferential market access on 98.2 per cent of its tariff lines.  His Government was proud of its relationship with countries in special situations and three India-Africa Forum summits and the Forum for India-Pacific Island Cooperation had crystallized that special relationship.  In addition to its ongoing credit programme, India had extended a grant assistance of $600 million, including an India-Africa Development Fund of $100 million and an India-Africa Health Fund of $10 million.  As commodity-exporting countries, the landlocked developing countries faced challenges as they tried to build links to the international economy.  The international community needed to help build the productive capacities of those countries and mobilize resources to fill their huge financing gap for development.  Donor countries needed to fill their ODA commitments.

AHMED SARER (Maldives) said that his country had been the third to graduate from least developed country status.  Noting that transition had taken place in 2011, she pointed out that it had been paramount to diversify the domestic economy as development challenges would be exacerbated by the loss of least developing countries benefits.  The Maldives had invested heavily in the tourism and fishing industries, but access to large scale financing for the building of ports, hospitals and harbours had become difficult due to the loss of preferential and concessional arrangements for financing.  Those limitations had placed at risk the development gains which had enabled the country’s graduation from the status of least developing country in the first place.  International cooperation would be essential for a smooth transition out of such a status.  Equally important was the recognition that vulnerabilities experienced by least developing countries that were also small island developing States would not go away after those countries had graduated.  Furthermore, the existing assessment for graduation, GDP per capita, was an inadequate measurement as it failed to fully reflect a country’s vulnerabilities.  It was therefore necessary to integrate the concept of economic vulnerability into the measurement of development.

IRINA MEDVEDEVA (Russian Federation) said that the 2030 Agenda noted that least developed countries and countries in special situations required priority in international affairs.  Those countries, particularly landlocked ones, faced major challenges.  Their development achievements were often slow, unsustainable and threatened by their economic situation and geography.  Hence, it was critical to step up cooperation to improve the quality of technology assistance and also stimulate industrial production.  The Russian Federation had proposed a special programme that would promote and provide much-needed technology assistance to landlocked developing countries.  The Russian Federation also welcomed the streamlining of trade agreements.  The average duration of going through customs had declined significantly through such programmes. In April 2017, the Russian Federation and the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) would sponsor a conference aimed at boosting regional trade.

MADINA KARABAEVA (Kyrgyzstan) said the main challenge facing landlocked developing countries was achieving sustainable economic growth.  She emphasized the role of multilateral trade and the need to set up a working programme for landlocked countries that tackled the issues of trade and trade assistance, services and market access.  Kyrgyzstan had developed regional and international trade links and was also establishing a road network in the country.  Moreover, it was constructing a high voltage electrical line link that would connect with Afghanistan and Pakistan.  Challenges remained, however, and Kyrgyzstan needed enhanced cooperation at the regional and global levels.  As there were still transit tariffs between States, she called on international community to resolve and remove factors which had a negative impact on trade.

PRASAD SHARMA POKHAREL (Nepal), associating himself with Group of 77, Group of Least Developed Countries and Group of Landlocked Developing Countries, said special needs and challenges of those countries deserved special attention.  The United Nations must continue to recognize their uniqueness, he said, emphasizing that those countries needed collective international support to meet development goals.  Resources must be predictable and sustainable.  The role of technology was vital, he added, welcoming the Technology Bank and calling on relevant stakeholders to ensure its successful implementation.  In its own experience, Nepal faced major challenges in relation to poor connectivity and trade facilitation.  The overarching goal of eradicating extreme poverty by 2030 would not be achieved without fully taking least developed countries and landlocked developing countries on board.  Without the full and timely implementation of those commitments, sustainable development would not be achievable.

SUKHCOLD SUKHEE (Mongolia), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the Group of Landlocked Developed Countries, said the latter group of countries continued to face considerable challenges linked to their geographic handicap.  Landlocked nations were among the hardest hit by the global economic slowdown, failing commodity prices, and food and energy shortages.  They also remained largely marginalized in the global economy, with a 0.96 per cent share of global exports in 2015.  Increased international assistance for export diversification and better market access were essential for the development and growth of those countries.  Mongolia had been utilizing its regional partners to establish economic trade corridors with its neighbours.  At the national level, Mongolia was committed to implementing relevant goals set forth in the 2030 Agenda.  It was particularly focusing on development plans in the areas of transit, infrastructure development, trade and trade facilitation, structural transformation and commodity value chains.

Ms. OCAMPO (Mexico) said landlocked developing countries were exposed and vulnerable to financial and economic crisis as well as climate change and natural hazards.  The international community must increase and maintain its support for their sustainable development.  Expressing regret over the loss of life and material damage caused by Hurricane Matthew, she said Mexico was providing the country with drinking water and purification tablets.  She stressed that all types of financing in addition to ODA were needed for landlocked countries to facilitate their access to technology and capacity-building.

PHAM THI KIM ANH (Viet Nam), associating himself with the Group of 77 and ASEAN, said that effective cooperation between landlocked developing countries and transit countries remained crucial to enable the former countries’ participation in international and regional trade.  The 2030 Agenda recognized that landlocked developing countries faced specific challenges and deserved special attention. Measures must be taken to deepen cooperation between landlocked developing countries and transit countries to improve infrastructure, trade and economic growth. In the Euro-Asia region, investments had been made to build and improve roads, railways, ports and transport logistics systems.  Such transit projects were examples of the efforts to better facilitate cooperation and trade and connect landlocked developing countries with major Asian and European markets.  He also looked forward to the high-level meeting on improving cooperation in regional transit, to take place in Hanoi in March 2017.

JONIBEK HIKMATOV(Tajikistan), associating himself with Group of 77 and Group of Landlocked Developing Countries, said it was time to move forward from commitment to action.  He expressed hope that upcoming discussions would bring fresh and innovative ideas that would strengthen cooperation.  Tajikistan was committed to the recommendations of the Vienna Programme of Action and attached particular importance to expanding sub-regional and regional trade.  Efforts had been made to simplify custom rules and regulations.  Transport and energy sectors were considered priorities for Tajikistan, he said, outlining plans and programmes focusing on renewable energy to promote sustainability and reduce emissions.  More than 50 per cent of the world would face water scarcity in the near future.  Collective international action was needed to address those challenges.  He also looked forward to cooperating with Member States to tackle challenges faced by countries in special situations.

TLHALEFO MADISA (Botswana) said landlocked developing countries’ trade costs and risks were high in comparison to coastal economies.  Those countries were also heavily dependent on single commodity markets, especially in the mineral and agricultural sectors, which exposed them to the fluctuations in global demand and commodity prices.  The implementation of the Vienna Programme of Action remained central to implementation of the 2030 Agenda and the mainstreaming of both those instruments was critical to Botswana’s national development.  To that end, Botswana needed the support of transit countries, development partners and regional and sub-regional partners.  Additionally, his Government continued to emphasize the role of the World Trade Organization in integrating landlocked developing countries in the global trade and sought increasing participation of those countries in the multilateral trading system.

PHILIP FOX-DRUMMOND GOUGH (Brazil), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), said the recent Midterm Review of the Istanbul Programme of Action was an important opportunity to renew and strengthen the international community’s resolve to support the least developed countries’ development.  That was especially true in light of the Programme’s goals and the Sustainable Development Goals.  As for the landlocked developing countries, the forward-looking Vienna Programme of Action, adopted in 2014, also showed international support by setting a new level of commitment and a new standard of follow-up to their implementation.  It aimed to align its structure and content with the achievements of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals.  The Midterm Review of the Istanbul Programme of Action renewed the collective impetus to achieve the goals in the eight priority areas.  Brazil particularly welcomed the steps taken to put the Technology Bank for the Least Developed Countries into operation by 2017.  His country was also encouraged by the progress reached towards the adoption of investment promotion regimes for the least developed countries.

KUMBIRAYI TAREMBA (Zimbabwe) said her country joined other landlocked developing countries in calling for the full implementation of the Vienna Programme of Action and support from the United Nations development system to mainstream the Programme into national development strategies.  She also urged multilateral development agencies and banks to put in place frameworks that would help landlocked developing countries diversify their economies and partake in global value chains.  Inadequate logistics infrastructure continued to limit those countries’ participation in international trade.  Her delegation therefore urged the Global Infrastructure Forum to establish action-oriented programmes that would address the infrastructure needs of landlocked developing countries.  In an effort to facilitate trade, Zimbabwe had introduced the One-Stop Border Post initiative at the country’s border with Zambia.  The initiative had resulted in reduced transaction costs and waiting times, in addition to strengthening political ties between the two countries, she said, concluding measures like that would help transform her country from landlocked to land-linked.

Ms. NAEEM (Kuwait), associating with the Group of 77, said that without innovative international partnerships, vulnerable countries could not succeed on their own.  Least developed countries needed developed countries to fulfil their ODA commitments.  The principles of peace and security must be fostered to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.  Kuwait continued to extend extensive development assistance throughout the world to achieve the aspirations of developing countries, particularly those States facing special situations.

BARIS CEYHUN ERCIYES (Turkey) said that development cooperation was an integral part of Turkey’s foreign policy and that it would remain committed to continuing its contributions in support of countries in special situations.  Turkey’s assistance to the least developed countries had exceeded $1.5 billion over the last five years.  Excluding humanitarian aid, approximately 20 per cent of Turkish ODA had been delivered to least developed countries.  It was vital to pay greater attention to the Technology Bank and science, technology and innovation-supporting mechanism dedicated to help the poorest countries address technology gaps.  Turkish authorities were in the process of considering a financial pledge to the Technology Bank, in particular at its start-up base.  He called on Member States and other stakeholders, including the private sector, to contribute to the trust fund and the Secretariat to take necessary steps to mobilize financial and human resources.

Ms. MANALE(Morocco), associating herself with the Group of 77, said concrete measures were needed to assist landlocked developing and least developed countries with sustainable development, which they could not achieve without the international community.  She welcomed the creation of the Technology Bank and stressed the need to increase ODA, and bilateral and multilateral funding as well to help developing countries overcome constraints to their development.  Morocco had worked for multi-sectoral strengthening in its framework vision for trade policies.  It favoured South-South and triangular cooperation, which had helped improve living standards in many least developed and landlocked developing countries.  The international community must help create an environment conducive to trade, especially for importers of food products.  Morocco had signed several agreements providing for preferential tariffs and the abolition of customs duties.

SANN THIT YEE (Myanmar), associating himself with the Group of 77, ASEAN and the Group of Least Developed Countries, said technology was a key enabler of development, emphasizing the vital role of science, technology and innovation in eradicating poverty and attaining the sustainable development of least developed countries.  He anticipated the support of the Technology Bank in those areas and looked forward to its full operationalization by 2017.  Financial inclusion was also important in reducing extreme poverty.  In Myanmar, it was estimated that only 30 per cent of adults had formal access to financial services and only 6 per cent were using more than one financial service.  The majority of citizens still relied on unregulated providers, often at substantially higher costs.  Myanmar also faced substantive infrastructure and human resources deficits, which constrained social and economic development.  It had considerable challenges in implementing the 2030 Agenda and other development goals in a timely and effective manner.

MOUNKAILA YACOUBA (Niger), associating with the Group of 77, Group of Least Developed Countries, and Group of Landlocked Developing Countries, said that the lack of access to the sea and the distance from major markets meant that landlocked countries depended on transit States.  There were fundamental problems related to transit policies, the development of infrastructure and trade and trade facilitation.  Since the adoption of the Almaty Declaration and Programme of Action, landlocked developing countries had shown higher growth rates, though they had experienced a decrease in terms of industrial value added and agricultural productivity.  Ports and roads were being built through the African region for landlocked countries.  Exports had grown dramatically for landlocked countries, and that showed that the challenges to be met were beyond the simple difficulties linked to delivering goods in a timely way to major markets.  It was also related to the lack of productive capacities, low levels of investment, and the informal nature of the private sector.  Landlocked developing countries would need a more comprehensive development programme in the future.

SUNEMA PIE SIMATI (Tuvalu) said landlocked developing countries needed genuine partnerships in the transfer of information and communications technology (ICT).  She noted that they continued to rely heavily on ODA, soft loans, private investment and remittances, but were increasingly leveraging their own domestic resources for complementarities.  She urged partners to honour and mobilize all financial pledges of ODA and collaborate for easy access to climate appropriations for landlocked countries and small-island developing States.  Landlocked developing countries must have stable and democratically elected administrations, strong institutions and legal underpinnings to ensure investments.  Social inclusive infrastructure and services must be efficiently provided.  As many landlocked developing countries were caught up in conflicts and desperately seeking peace, the root causes of violence and extremist behaviour should be examined.  She also noted that the inundation of sea water and loss of coastal territories for small island developing States created social and economic stress beyond the coping capacity of nations and individuals.

BELACHEW GUJUBO GUTULO (Ethiopia), associating himself with the Group of 77, Group of Landlocked Developing Countries and the Group of Least Developed Countries, said the overarching goal of the Istanbul Program of Action was to overcome structural challenges faced by least developed nations to eradicate poverty, enhance productive capacity and achieve structural transformation.  Those countries had made positive progress but still faced significant development challenges.  The sharp drop in ODA to least developed countries in 2014 was a source of concern, though there was a trend to address that decline.  That assistance remained critical to fill the financial gaps least developed countries continued to face.  Access to climate finance and technology development and transfer and capacity-building were all essential, and it was time to fully operationalize the Technology Bank.  Ethiopia had rapid and sustained double-digit economic growth, and the recently opened Ethio-Djibouti train line could be highlighted as a major regional initiative.

ZHANG YANHUA (China), associating himself with the Group of 77, said landlocked developing and least developed countries faced a daunting task in fulfilling the Sustainable Development Goals.  The international community must urgently assist those countries in graduating from their least developed status and continue to support them after their graduation.  The global community should also step up support for landlocked developing countries in addressing their geographical constraints, inadequate infrastructures and transit problems.

PEMA TOBGAY (Bhutan) associated himself with the Group of 77, Group of Least Developed Countries and the Group of Landlocked Developing Countries.  He said least developed countries continued to face low levels of productivity, compounded by natural hazards and the impacts of climate change.  Structural transformation of their economies could contribute to building productive capacity in least developed countries, which could assist with sustainable and inclusive growth.  He noted that the vast human resource potential in those nations remained to be tapped.  A long-term development strategy based on delivery of quality education, including vocational skills and providing women and young people with avenues for entrepreneurship, could unlock the economic potential in least developed countries.  Given the structural constraints those countries faced, global support in terms of resources, capacity and technical assistance, would be critical in full realization of the Istanbul Programme of Action in the years ahead.

AIGERIM BOZZHIGITOVA (Kazakhstan), associating herself with the group of Landlocked Developing Countries, said that the Almaty Programme of Action had strengthened partnerships between landlocked developing nations and transit countries.  As the furthest country from any seaport, Kazakhstan understood the necessity of transit infrastructure, and was actively building and renovating rail lines and highways.  The Vienna Programme of Action called for ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable energy for all by 2030, but the most vulnerable countries still faced challenges in meeting their energy needs.

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Child Migrants, Refugees Especially Vulnerable to Violence during Humanitarian Crises, Speakers Tell Third Committee, as Debate on Children Concludes

The Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural) concluded its general discussion on the rights of children today, with delegates describing progress and challenges on a range of issues pertaining to child health, education and protection.

While several delegates shared progress their Governments had made in improving legislative and social mechanisms to prevent violence against children, many were concerned by the growing threat posed by humanitarian emergencies, and in particular, the migrant and refugee crisis.

The representative of Bulgaria, which was both a transit and host country for thousands of refugees and migrants, reminded Member States that “a child is first a child, and after that, a refugee or migrant”.  As such, they had rights that must be protected by all.  Guatemala’s delegate was particularly concerned by the vulnerability of unaccompanied children migrating across the Americas.  Her Government had established consular services in Mexico and the United States to help protect those youth, but she also urged States to stop detaining minors.  Similarly, El Salvador’s speaker called for a human rights-based approach to dealing with the situation of child migrants.  Echoing those concerns, the representative of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) reminded authorities of their obligations under international law to prevent family separation and to avoid detaining children.

A number of delegates addressed the situation of children living under occupation, with Ukraine’s delegate stressing that despite his country’s efforts to improve opportunities for children, many Ukrainian children living under Russian occupation had been denied their rights.  Similarly in Georgia, the Russian occupation was denying children the right to education in their native language and freedom of movement, said that country’s delegate.

In the Middle East, Palestinian children had been deliberately targeted by the Israeli army, said the State of Palestine’s observer.  She asked when the international community would react to those rights violations.  Iran’s delegate expressed dismay that political pressure had compromised the independence of the Secretary-General’s 2016 report on children and armed conflict.  He proposed the United Nations at least impose an arms embargo on Governments engaged in mass killing of children.

The Russian Federation’s delegate, exercising his right of reply, called on Georgian authorities to discuss issues including children’s rights in a dialogue directly with the powers of the sovereign nations of Abkhazia and Ossetia.  To his Ukrainian counterpart, he said the politicized statement was an attempt to deflect attention from human rights violations in Ukraine itself.

In other business today, the Committee approved a decision to invite the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Eritrea, Sheila B. Keetharuth, to present an oral update.  She would be orally introduced as a member of the former Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in Eritrea.

Also speaking were representatives of Algeria, Angola, Bahrain, Kuwait, Bangladesh, Botswana, Cameroon, Monaco, Central African Republic, China, Eritrea, Burkina Faso, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Guinea, Congo, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Japan, Lebanon, Panama, Madagascar, Morocco, Haiti, Mozambique, Armenia, Myanmar, Palau, Malaysia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sudan, Kyrgyzstan, Timor-Leste, Togo, Azerbaijan, Tonga, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and the observer of the Sovereign Order of Malta.

Officials of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) also addressed the Committee.

Also speaking in exercise of the right of reply were representatives of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Israel, the State of Palestine and Ukraine.

The Committee will reconvene at 10 a.m. Monday, 17 October, to begin consideration of the rights of indigenous peoples.

Background

The Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural) met this morning to conclude its debate on the promotion and protection of the rights of children.  For information, see Press Release GA/SHC/4169.

Statements

CÉCILE MBALLA EYENGA (Cameroon) expressed concern about the conditions for children around the world, especially in Africa, due to armed conflicts and humanitarian crises.  Cameroon had made education a pillar of its social policies.  Protection of children’s rights was as essential.  Children recruited by terrorist groups, such as Boko Haram, were of great concern.  She welcomed collaboration with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Health Organization (WHO) and other United Nations agencies, stressing that with such assistance, Cameroon had implemented programmes to combat child mortality, focusing on systematic vaccination programmes. 

VALÉRIE S BRUELL-MELCHIOR (Monaco) said that while UNICEF aimed to help all children, after 70 years of action, numerous obstacles had yet to be overcome.  Two conditions were essential to ensure children had a good start to life:  health and education.  She observed that 250 million children lacked good nutrition, adding that children’s access to health care must include nutrition goals.  Quality education without distinction was the way to break the vicious cycle of poverty.  Children should be taught to reflect in a manner that would allow them to reject extremism.

MARÍA JOSÉ DEL ÁGUILA CASTILLO (Guatemala), endorsing the statement of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), said investing in childhood was crucial to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.  Her country had been affected by El Niño and El Niña, and appreciated the United Nations’ support in responding to their devastating effects.  The situation of migrant children was of great concern and her Government had established consular services in Mexico and the United States to support unaccompanied migrant children.  States must stop detaining minors.  Finally, she welcomed the Secretary-General’s report on the protection of children from bullying.

TAMTA KUPRADZE (Georgia), addressing the vulnerability of children in armed conflict and the need for more efforts to protect their rights, said the Russian Federation’s occupation of Georgian territory had deprived Georgian children of their rights to education in their native language and freedom of movement.  Those violations were particularly concerning given the absence of international monitoring mechanisms inside those territories.  Committed to increasing opportunities for its children, Georgia had improved its education system, health and social services and ensuring children’s protection from violence.  Its Parliament had adopted a new amendment to the Civil Code requiring parental consent for marriage under age 16 and other measures to prevent human trafficking.

MAJDA MOUTCHOU (Morocco) said her country had ratified all children’s rights instruments, demonstrating the country’s commitment to combating rights violations.  Various measures had strengthened Morocco’s legal framework, such as a law ensuring that the best interests of all children were considered.  A ministerial unit responsible for family, childhood, and disabled persons had set out a public policy to protect children against abuse over the Internet and from trafficking.  As new forms of crime required that reliable data systems be created for monitoring, and Morocco had partnerships with internet service providers to protect children against sexual exploitation, as well as an awareness-raising campaign for parents for their children’s safe use of the internet.

NICOLE ROMULUS (Haiti), associating herself with CELAC and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), said the States had major work to do to promote and protect children’s rights.  The number of children not in school had increased since 2011, while 250 million children lived in countries affected by armed conflict.  Governments were obliged to ensure that all children could live up to their potential.  She spoke about Haiti’s policies towards schools, noting that the President had urged all to work for a full, successful school year, and to join together to bring about a more unified Haitian society through quality education.  Haiti had ensured that children’s rights were a priority and had taken various measures to protect children’s rights. 

MANSOUR T J ALMUTAIRI (Saudi Arabia) said children’s rights were a priority for the Government, which recognized the right to life for children even during pregnancy.  The Government’s concern for children ran so deep that it required parents to choose proper names for them.  Saudi Arabia also ensured children’s protection from difficult or forced labour, while child abuse was punished in accordance with Sharia law.  Reiterating the Government’s commitment to the Convention and other international instruments, he said it would strengthen cooperation with international organizations.  Finally, he expressed concern about the plight of Syrian children and the need to end the war in that country.

MAYANK JOSHI (India) noted that, despite progress made, more than 47 per cent of the world’s children still lived in poverty and they were particularly vulnerable during times of conflict and natural disasters.  Political will, resource mobilization and investments were needed to protect and promote children’s rights.  For its part, India had adopted a rights-based approach through its National Policy for Children, which promoted children’s literacy, education and health care.  The Integrated Child Development Scheme, a universal programme, provided health care, food, immunization and pre-school education, he said, stressing that India would continue its efforts to protect children against violence and exploitation, in particular, the girl child.

RWAYDA IZZELDIN HAMID ELHASSAN (Sudan) associated herself with the “Group of 77” developing countries and China, and with the African Group, stressing that the protection of children’s rights was a top priority.  Sudan had ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its optional protocols, among other international instruments.  Expressing support for the “Children, Not Soldiers” campaign, she said that the recruitment of children under the age of 18 was prohibited.  Special units in the ministry of the interior protected children, and a special investigator had been set up to investigate crimes against children in Darfur.  Further, Sudan had signed an action plan with the United Nations regarding children in conflict zones.  The root causes of children’s recruitment - including unilateral economic sanctions against countries - must be addressed.

MADINA KARABAEVA (Kyrgyzstan) said her country stood firmly on the path to becoming a State where children’s protection was a key value.  A programme to develop justice for children aimed to create a legal system which would protect children in conflict with the law, as well as children who were witnesses.  The Government was protecting children’s rights and reacting to each individual child’s needs, she said, adding that about 60 centres offered help for families in difficult living situations.  Policies for children included the protection of childhood and motherhood.  Extreme poverty had decreased in the country, as had infant mortality.

STEPHANIE GEBREMEDHIN (Eritrea) said the country’s culture and laws guaranteed children’s rights, noting that new penal and civil codes referenced corporal punishment and other forms of abuse.  The justice system did not allow children under 12 to be treated as criminals, while those between the ages of 12 and 18 were treated as juvenile offenders.  There were also efforts with civil society to raise awareness about violence against children and child trafficking.  The country’s efforts to provide more equitable health care had allowed it to achieve Millennium Development Goal 5 on child mortality.  The number of births attended to by a skilled health worker had also increased, she said, adding that girls’ elementary school enrolment had reached 99 per cent, with pre-primary enrolment also increasing.

MYRIAM AMAN SOULAMA (Burkina Faso), associating with the African Group, described measures taken at the legislative, education, and social levels to improve children’s rights.  Education policies had led to an increase in girls’ school enrolment.  To address child abuse, the Government had set up a support hotline for victims.  Maternal and neonatal mortality had declined, thanks to the provision of free health care for children under age five and pregnant women.  The incidence of female genital mutilation also had steadily decreased.

MILDRED GUZMÁN MADERA (Dominican Republic), stressing that countering violence against children was a priority, said the Government had enhanced its social policies and systems for the protection of children, families and communities.  It also had established a comprehensive care centre for children with disabilities and a new centre for early childhood care.  A national council for children and adolescents provided temporary protection for children under threat.  In addition, a national roadmap for the prevention of violence against children had been developed with guidance from the Special Representative of the Secretary-General.  The Dominican Republic was striving to improve parenting through awareness-raising and training for parents, teachers and community leaders.

ELLEN AZARIA MADUHU (United Republic of Tanzania) associated herself with the Group of 77 and China, the African Group and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). The Government issued a new National Action Plan on addressing violence against women and children for the period 2016 – 2021. Additional measures were undertaken to protect children, including the translation and dissemination of the 2009 National Child Act and the establishment of a Child Helpline for reporting acts of violence and abuse. The Government also attached great importance to the child’s right to education and ending child marriage. Public schools were directed to ensure that all primary and secondary education is free for all children. Furthermore, a campaign against early marriages was launched in 2014. The “Kigali Declaration” provided the framework for action to end early and forced marriages.

MASNI ERIZA (Indonesia) said efforts to promote children’s rights had been underpinned by the national action plan to eliminate violence.  The President had convened the education commission, which financed education.  Indonesia was a “pathfinder country” in the newly-launched partnership to end violence against children.  The most basic unit of society was the family, which had the responsibility for nurturing children, he said, pressing Governments to enact family-friendly policies.  Indonesia had allocated a sizable share of its budget for children, providing them with free education and health care, which had led to lower illiteracy rates.  Stressing the imperative to end violence against children, he expressed Indonesia’s commitment to engage internationally to protect and promote their rights.

HELGA VALBORG STEINARSDÓTTIR (Iceland) said her country was committed to the protection and promotion of children’s rights at home and abroad and had recently codified a new framework agreement with UNICEF.  Iceland had incorporated the Convention into national law, she said, and urging States seek the treaty’s integration into policymaking.  Protecting the rights of girls would require eliminating all forms of discrimination, violence and harmful practices.  It was a stain on the global community that every day, almost 40,000 girls were subjected to early and forced marriage.  Girls must be provided with the sexual and reproductive health care they needed, including comprehensive sexual education.

YASUE NUNOSHIBA (Japan) said her country’s “Learning Strategy for Peace and Growth” focused particularly on providing education for girls.  For instance, Japan had assisted in building girls’ middle schools in the United Republic of Tanzania, where early marriage and pregnancy prevented them from completing their education.  Japan also had funded a programme through UNICEF that supported the release and reintegration of children from armed groups in African countries.  It had contributed $6 million for the reintegration of child soldiers and the protection and empowerment of children in armed conflict.  Locally, the Government provided administrative services to every family in need, in particular for families in difficult situations, such as single-parent households.

MAYA DAGHER (Lebanon) said between the seventieth and seventy-first sessions of the General Assembly, millions of children had become victims of armed violence and terrorism, noting that many had been “swallowed” by the Mediterranean Sea.  Lebanon had supported many initiatives last year, including resolutions in the Assembly and the Security Council which all aimed to create a world fit for children.  Lebanon paid attention to education, particularly as a means through which to combat extremism.  Education for all was at the heart of its policies, she said, noting that the country was hosting over one million refugees.

DAYANARA EDITH SALAZAR MEDINA (Panama), associating herself with CELAC, said her country had faced waves of child migrants, underscoring that, through an interdisciplinary team, the Government was present in communities where shelters for migrants had been established.  The goal was to respect migrants’ rights, she said, adding that boys and girls should not be criminalized for being migrants.  All should have the same opportunities.  Investing in quality education and reducing neonatal mortality were crucial towards ensuring each boy and girl’s future.  She noted that the region continued to face challenges, adding that Panama sought to address the challenges of indigenous children and children with disabilities. 

YIN PO MYAT (Myanmar), noting that peace and reconciliation were prerequisites for the success of development policies, said the Government had strengthened its education programs to better protect children from exploitation and violence.  She welcomed the “Children, Not Soldiers” initiative, stressing that Myanmar had signed a Joint Action Plan with the United Nations Country Task Force on Monitoring and Reporting on the use of children in the military in 2012. As a result, the recruitment process was centralized and children had been released from the military, if found.  She said 810 children had been released from the military since signature of the related Action Plan, noting that support had been provided to assist with their reintegration and education.  Also, 81 military officers and 321 officers of other ranks had been penalized by military and civil laws. Given such progress, it was time that Myanmar was delisted from the Secretary-General’s report on children and armed conflict.

HAMIDEH HASSANI NEJAD PIRKOUHI (Iran), noting that the 2030 Agenda included numerous references to children, said millions of children still lived in poverty without adequate nutrition, sanitation, or vaccinations against disease.  He expressed dismay that children’s interests had been compromised under unjustified political pressure in the Secretary-General’s report on Children and Armed Conflict.  “An arms embargo on Governments that engage in mass killing of children is the least that the United Nations can advocate for,” he said, stressing the importance of the family as the fundamental group of society.  In Iran, 460,000 children attended school free of charge, an enormous burden on the education system, and donors had failed to meet their commitments.

MARIA HELENA LOPES DE JESUS PIRES (Timor-Leste) encouraging support for the office on violence against children, expressed particular concern about cyberbullying and bullying in schools.  There was a collective responsibility to protect children in conflict and attacks on schools and hospitals could not be tolerated.  She urged parties to conflict to respect children’s rights and refrain from recruiting child soldiers, calling for adequate assistance for reintegrating those who had been recruited.  Timor-Leste was committed to ensuring access to education to all its children, with special attention given to those with disabilities.  To improve retention of girls in schools, legislation had been passed to support integration of teenage mothers in the educational system.  Health campaigns had resulted in a sharp decline in child mortality, while immunization campaigns had been greatly expanded, she added.

PARK JEE WON (Republic of Korea) underlined the importance of a comprehensive and coordinated approach in promoting children’s rights, welcoming the Organization’s efforts to expand partnerships with civil societies.  Education should be further expanded to include the most vulnerable and marginalized, she said, noting the some 58 million children lacked access to education.  Education was a building block of a sustainable, inclusive society based on human rights, equality, rule of law and respect for diversity.  Girls were more susceptible to violence and discrimination.  Last year, the Republic of Korea had launched a “Better Life for Girls” initiative to support girls’ health, education and vocational development in developing countries, to which it would provide $200 million over five years.

MS. AL JAWDAR (Bahrain) said Government programmes had improved children’s lives in recent years.  The country had adhered to its commitments under international conventions and had ratified the Convention in 1992.  In June, Bahrain’s representative had been re-elected to the Committee on the Rights of the Child. Its human development indicators were high, thanks to its focus on children and youth.  Further, health care reforms had led to lower child and maternal mortality, she said, citing the provision of health care for newborns, vaccines for children under five and social and psychological service for children.

FAHAD M E H A MOHAMMAD (Kuwait) shared the concerns about threats children faced on the internet, including exposure to violent ideologies and sexual abuse.  Recalling that more than one billion children had been exposed to some form of violence over the past year, he urged all countries to implement the provision concerning violence against children under the 2030 Agenda.  Kuwait’s constitution recognized the family as the basis of society.  Based on that principle and its international commitments, Kuwait had enacted national laws to protect the family and the child, including a family court and several articles dealing with the family and children.  The State recognized the child’s right to live in a family environment.  It was impossible to address the issue of children without referring to the suffering of Palestinian children who lived under Israeli occupation.

IRENE SUSAN BARREIRO NATIVIDAD (Philippines), associating herself with ASEAN, said the Government recognized its duty to provide a safe and enabling environment for children.  A child’s right to education was of paramount importance and 20.9 per cent of the country’s 2017 national budget would go to education.  Further, the Government had passed an Anti-Bullying Act, as well as adopted a comprehensive approach to protecting children from sale, prostitution and child pornography and developed mechanisms to respond to child abuse.  Ending conflict was essential to creating the proper environment for children, she said, stressing the Government’s commitment to dialogue, and ultimately, forging peace with various armed groups.

EMMANUEL NIBISHAKA (Rwanda), while noting the progress in the reports, observed that child neglect, trafficking, abuse, exploitation, genital mutilation and child marriage persisted.  Rwanda believed in the primary role of Governments, supported by partners, including the United Nations, in promoting and providing protection to children.  The 1994 genocide in Rwanda had left many negative repercussions, along with post-conflict issues, that had affected Rwanda’s children, who represented a high percentage of the population.  The Government had made primary and secondary education free and compulsory, prohibited corporal punishment and opened rehabilitation centres for street children.  Further, Rwandan law condemned child prostitution, slavery and abduction, he said, urging the international community to continue establishing frameworks to protect children in armed conflicts.

NORA IMANE BELLOUT (Algeria) said her country had achieved all objectives on education of the Millennium Development Goals before the deadline.  Moreover, the education budget had increased tenfold over 15 years and provided free education to more than eight million students in nearly 23,000 schools, including refugee children in the Tindouf camps.  Significant results had been achieved in the quality of education and the fundamental rights of children.  The new law on child protection focused on protecting at-risk children; rules relating to child offenders; and specialized child protection centres, among other things.

COURTENAY RATTRAY (Jamaica), associating himself with CELAC and CARICOM, said his country had taken a comprehensive approach to realizing children’s rights.  For instance, the Government had guaranteed tuition-free education as a way to improve access.  It also had signed on to the Global Partnership to End Violence against Children and been designated a “pathfinder country”.  Moreover, the Ministry of Education had created and provided a safety and security manual to schools as a way to address bullying.

MAHE’ULI’ULI SANDHURST TUPOUNIUA (Tonga) said that, in recognition that children were his country’s most important assets, Tonga had acceded to the Convention on their rights and was amending its laws appropriately, ensuring protection against violence, as well as access to education, free health care and other necessities.  National consultations were underway under Tonga’s strategic development framework, and awareness events were being held in conjunction with UNICEF, focusing on children’s growth, the implications of digital media on children and other areas of social protection.  There was no social welfare scheme for children as yet.

HANTASOA FIDA CYRILLE KLEIN (Madagascar), associating herself with the Group of 77 and China, and with SADC, noted that the population of her country was young.  The Government was pursuing numerous policies to ensure respect for children’s rights, and the goals had been laid out in a regional and communal framework plan.  Public establishments and teaching personnel had received training on protecting children in school environments, she said, stressing that combating sexual tourism was extremely important.  Climate change impacted Malagasy children, and the effects of El Niño and drought had been severe.

GENE BAI (Fiji) said his country was strongly committed to the Convention on the Rights of the Child.  The Constitution protected a child’s right to nutrition, clothing, shelter and health care, and provided protection against abuse, neglect, violence, inhumane treatment, punishment and exploitative labour.  It also prohibited all forms of corporal punishment.  Access to quality education was paramount, and in 2015, for the first time, primary and secondary school education had become free.  Fiji was also committed to supporting gender equality and sought to limit the marginalization and exclusion of children with disabilities.

GEORGI VELIKOV PANAYOTOV (Bulgaria), associating himself with the European Union, said that the Government had established a set of measures for promoting the rights and well-being of all children, especially the most vulnerable and marginalized.  Ending violence against children was a top priority.  The current humanitarian crisis was of an unprecedented scale, requiring immediate action.  Calling it a “children’s crisis”, he advocated a child-based approach to address it.  “We should remember that a child is first a child, and after that, a refugee or migrant,” he said.  As a transit and host country for thousands of migrants and refugees, Bulgaria was doing its utmost, in cooperation with the European Union, UNICEF and other partners, to protect the human rights of those fleeing war, in particular migrant and refugee children.

MASUD BIN MOMEN (Bangladesh) reaffirmed his commitment to advance children’s rights, including in the areas of education and child labour.  Further, a new Child Marriage Restraint Act had been drafted which contained pragmatic guidelines to prevent child marriage.  A national, toll-free helpline had been set up to support efforts to report and prevent child marriage, and to report sexual harassment.  Bangladesh also had adopted a five-year action plan to reduce child labour.

IBRAHIMA KOMARA (Guinea) associated himself with the African Group and with the Group of 77 and China, adding that it would be a success for the United Nations to see the Convention reach universal ratification.  Guinea was among the countries that had unreservedly ratified the Convention almost 30 years ago, as well as its relevant optional protocols.  But results for children around the world remained discouraging, and many remained marginalized, such as disabled children.  Awareness that children were the future was manifested in legal codes, he said, noting that Guinea’s free education system and its improved vaccine programme were other actions that underscored the Government’s commitment to realizing children’s rights.

LAURIA NGUELE MAKOUELET (Congo) said various challenges hindered children’s full enjoyment of their rights.  Congo had a new Constitution which had strengthened a strategic framework for children, and the country also had set up a children’s parliament with offices in Congo’s 12 administrative departments.  The Government had invested resources to respond to children’s needs, providing hundreds of technical aids to disabled children.  It also had cooperated with the World Food Programme (WFP) to ensure that all children received quality nutrition.  No effort would be spared to ensure the full implementation of the Convention of the Rights of the Child.

NKOLOI NKOLOI (Botswana) associated himself with the Group of 77 and China, the African Group and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). He expressed concern about ongoing armed conflicts, particularly in Syria, Afghanistan, Yemen, Somalia and South Sudan, drawing attention to their severe effects on children.  Urging Governments and parties to armed conflict to respect international human rights law and international humanitarian law, he welcomed new initiatives, including the Charter on Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities in Humanitarian Action, the “Children, Not Soldiers” campaign and related action plans.

The Committee Chair said she and the Bureau had held consultations since 4 October on the pending organizational issue.  She proposed that the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Eritrea, Sheila B. Keetharuth, be invited to present an oral update to the Third Committee.  Ms. Keetharuth would be orally introduced as a member of the former Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in Eritrea.  If needed, additional time would be allocated for her to make her presentation.

The Committee then approved that decision without a vote.

The representative of Eritrea said the proposal had been accepted in the interests of moving forward.  Eritrea maintained its readiness to engage with any delegation, and the matter had been resolved within the African Group.  But Eritrea’s goodwill had been faced with a “flip-flop” position of the other side. Discussion over the past two weeks had shown the politicization of the human rights situation.  Countries with contempt for international law had presented themselves as champions of Third Committee Rules of Procedures; countries which had massacred people and were using light ammunition against peaceful protesters had spoken on the matter.  Eritrea’s position was that human rights could only be promoted through dialogue.

IGOR YAREMENKO (Ukraine), aligning himself with the European Union, reiterated Ukraine’s commitment to children’s rights, as evidenced by its adherence to numerous international conventions and protocols.  Priorities covered health, recreation, disabilities, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, drug abuse, child abandonment, support to families and protection for orphans.  Despite its efforts, the country faced great challenges as a result of Russian aggression.  Since the start of the conflict, 68 children had been killed and 186 had been wounded in eastern Ukraine.  The number of internally displaced people had reached 1.8 million, including more the 200,000 children.  The situation of children in the Donbas region had not received enough attention in the Secretary-General’s reports, he said, urging that that omission be rectified.  Greater international assistance was also needed to overcome the negative effects of the Chernobyl disaster, which had affected children most of all.

SAHAR ABUSHAWESH, observer for the State of Palestine, said that Palestinian children had been deprived all their rights, as killing and maiming continued with impunity.  Those actions had evolved into a deliberate Israeli strategy and she asked when the international community would react to those human rights violations.  The Israeli blockade had stifled any life or development in the occupied territory, with devastating impacts on children.

RUBEN IGNACIO ZAMORA RIVAS (El Salvador), associating himself with CELAC, shared achievements in his country, pointing out that the normative framework had advanced, and the comprehensive protection of children had improved.  Councils had been established to protect children at the local level.  Children’s health care had improved, and efforts had been made to ensure health care access for all children.  The growing numbers of unaccompanied child migrants must be addressed from a human-rights perspective, bearing in mind the best interests of children and their families.  Family reunification must remain a priority.

CALEB OTTO (Palau) quoted extensively from the 2030 Agenda’s paragraphs concerning children, before quoting from the Convention on the Rights of the Child’s articles concerning the child’s social, spiritual and moral well-being.  Those provisions, he said, highlighted two issues of great importance.  The first was the right of children to be reared by their parents.  Children in focus group discussions in Palau had said they would like their parents to spend more time with them, rather than try to appease them with gifts and food.  The second, he said, was that children should be provided an environment that addressed mental health and well-being and was free from bullying, shaming and demeaning treatment, at home and in school.

NEOW CHOO SEONG (Malaysia), associating himself with ASEAN and with the Group of 77 and China, said his country had made significant progress since acceding to the Convention in 1995, including by creating the Child Act of 2001.  That Act formed part of the protective legal architecture for children in Malaysia.  Efforts must be made to put in place accountability mechanisms, in order to break the cycle of impunity for violations of children’s rights.  Malaysia, as Chair of the Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict, reaffirmed its strong commitment to the promotion and protection of the rights of children. 

ADDO MAMAN TCHALARE (Togo) shared his country’s experience in advancing the protection of children, noting that a decree had been drafted for the national Commission of the Child to prepare guidelines for those working in the area of children’s protection.  Health care, education and training initiatives all had improved children’s situations.  At the regional level, a program had been launched to protect child migrants and trafficking victims, while education for children with disabilities had improved.

YASHAR ALIYEV (Azerbaijan) said child protection efforts must be stepped up. While progress had been made in the protection of children affected by armed conflict, including with the release of children from armed forces, the issue of children and armed conflict must receive adequate attention in the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals.

ANTÓNIO GUMENDE (Mozambique), associating himself with the African Group and with SADC, said Government efforts to address children’s needs at the legislative, institutional and community levels aimed to ensure that all Mozambicans could help resolve the issues hampering children’s ability to realize their potential.  Mozambique’s national action programme on children, among other results, had increased access to water and sanitation.  Challenges remained, however, notably caused by climate change and communicable diseases.  Creating a world fit for children demanded that States redouble their commitments and implement existing international instruments.

LILIT GRIGORYAN (Armenia) said that through the national strategic programme on child protection, and cooperation with development partners such as UNICEF, her country had reached vulnerable children and made reforms.  As a nation which suffered from aggression by Azerbaijan, Armenia condemned attacks on civilians including children.  From the beginning of Azerbaijani aggression, she said, attacks on children and the elderly had been indiscriminate.  Such barbaric acts constituted violations of core international instruments including the Convention against Torture and Convention on the Rights of the Child. 

MÉLANIE CORINE NINA GOLIATHA (Central African Republic) reiterated her commitment to the relevant Conventions, expressing her strong disapproval that an increasing number of children had been victims of armed violence, natural disasters and human rights violations.  She noted with concern the increasing number of killed and maimed children, as well as children displaced by conflicts and attacks by armed groups.  A concerted effort must be made to reunite children with their families, she said, emphasizing that a comprehensive response required governance and security sector reforms.

CHU GUANG (China) said his country had the world’s largest population of children – 280 million - and the Government worked to implement the Convention and its relevant Protocols.  Great progress had been made in pre-school education, with some provinces having established a 15-year free education system by including pre-school and high school in public funding.  Countries must implement the 2030 Agenda, which required developed countries to honour their commitments by increasing financial and technological assistance to developing countries in order to protect children’s rights and interests.  Developing countries, meanwhile, must share their experiences with one another.

FREDERICK MUSIIWA MAKAMURE SHAVA (Zimbabwe), associating himself with the African Group and SADC, said the promotion of children’s rights could not be viewed in isolation from broader development goals.  Children thrived when raised in a strong and secure family environment, and his country continued to implement interventions designed to assist families in coping with harsh economic conditions.  All international conventions to which Zimbabwe was party had been incorporated into domestic law under the new Constitution.  Zimbabwe had several laws to protect children, and had established a victim-friendly system to support survivors of sexual violence and abuse.  The Government was committed to ending child marriages and had set the legal marriage age at 18 years.

NDEYE OUMY GUEYE (Senegal), associating herself with the African Group, supported the “Children, Not Soldiers” campaign and the work of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict.  The campaign had led to the release of children from armed groups in Senegal. The Government had redoubled efforts to eliminate female genital mutilation, she said, noting that children’s rights had been taken into account in the development of health care and education policies.  Senegal also had seen increases in school enrolment and drafted a national declaration to advance children’s rights.

Mr. VON HAFT (Angola) recalled that at the General Assembly Special Session on children in 2002, Member States had committed to time-bound goals for children and young people.  Those goals had been followed by the 2030 Agenda and it was essential to maintain focus on children when budgeting for sustainable development.  He listed several international instruments to which Angola was party, noting that his country had also adopted child protection legislation consistent with international standards.  Successful programmes included one that had established free birth registration, and an SOS call centre for children facing violence.  He urged States to review ways in which the new Agenda could reduce inequality among children.

MIRIAMA HERENUI BETHAM-MALIELEGAOI (Samoa) said children’s rights were the utmost priority for her country, as reflected in national policies.  Underscoring the importance of children’s nutrition and education, as well as safety from violence, exploitation, and abuse, she said Samoa had ratified the Convention’s three Optional Protocols and called on other States to do likewise.  The family and community were at the forefront of child rearing practices.  Children were a priority focus of Samoa’s health sector plan 2008-2018, and children under five years of age received free primary health care, including immunizations.  The 2009 Education Act stipulated compulsory education, and the Government had taken initial steps towards implementing free education.  Further, Samoa had passed legislation outlawing corporal punishment, and proposed amendments to prohibit the sale of children and restrict the use of children to sell goods on the street.

ANN DEER, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), said daily events in the Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, the Americas, the Gulf of Aden and elsewhere had shown the ongoing suffering of migrants and their families, and too often their needs had gone unmet by the international community.  Migrant children were particularly vulnerable, and for those whose age was uncertain, the individual must be presumed to be, and treated as, a child.  She reminded authorities of their obligations under international law to prevent family separation, underscoring that States’ assessment of the protection and assistance to be offered should be based on vulnerabilities and needs, rather than the location of family members.  ICRC engaged in confidential dialogue with States to ensure they fulfilled their obligations to protect migrant children, and reminded States that detention of any children should be avoided.

MICHAEL ESPIRITU, Permanent Observer of the Sovereign Order of Malta, affirmed the Order’s commitment to mothers and babies, as evidenced by its maternity centres in the West Bank, Madagascar, Togo, Uganda and United Republic of Tanzania, and its efforts to fight malnutrition around the globe.  With the number of displaced persons on the rise, the Order had greatly bolstered its humanitarian aid and medical assistance.  In joint operations with the Italian Coast Guard, its doctors had delivered three babies at sea last week.  It had provided care to 170,000 Syrian refugees in the Middle East and 44,000 in Europe, among its medical services to refugees worldwide.  He pledged the Order’s continued commitment to work with the United Nations and Member States to ensure that children everywhere were cared for, educated, nurtured and protected.

FLORENCIA GIORDANO, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, expressed concern about the mass migration of children, stressing that it had led to increased numbers of unaccompanied children who were at much higher risk of violence and child marriage.  Describing gaps in the implementation of child protection programmes, she cited a lack of age- and gender-disaggregated data for children and said a more comprehensive analysis of needs and vulnerabilities was necessary.  Further, support for the family, family tracing and alternative care arrangements must be stepped up, with children’s best interests always the primary consideration in actions affecting them.

VINICIUS PINHEIRO, Special Representative and Director of the International Labour Office (ILO) for the United Nations, said that his Office was committed to the protection of children through the eradication of child labour.  ILO provided expertise and contributed to the growing knowledge base that helped inform policy formulation.  Several ILO conventions provided essential protections for children worldwide, including conventions on minimum age of entry into employment and prohibition of forced labour.  Additionally, ILO’s new recommendation on the transition from the informal to the formal economy tackled an area where not only child labour but also most violations of labour, human and child rights occurred.

Right of Reply

The representative of Israel, speaking in exercise of the right of reply, said that instead of advancing the Committee’s agenda, the Palestinian representative had made baseless accusations against Israel, sending a message of hate and incitement.  Those accusations would not bring the international community closer to resolving the core challenges facing the region.

The representative of Russian Federation, responding to statements by the delegations of Georgia and Ukraine, called on Georgian authorities to discuss issues including children’s rights in a dialogue directly with the powers of the sovereign nations of Abkhazia and Ossetia.  To his Ukrainian counterpart, he recalled that the annexation of Ukraine to the Russian Federation had been in accordance with international law.  Those events were of a historical nature and adhered to the will of the people of Crimea.  The Russian Federation had done quite a bit to improve the lives of those living in Crimea.  The politicized statement by the Ukrainian representative was an attempt to deflect attention from human rights violations in Ukraine itself.

The representative of Azerbaijan rejected the false allegations of his Armenian counterpart, noting that Azerbaijan’s statement had focused on children, while that of Armenia had focused on Azerbaijan.  The Armenian delegation could have chosen another agenda item to speak about killing of elderly people.  The reality was that Azerbaijani territories were under occupation, and both Assembly and Council resolutions had been ignored by Armenia.  That Government had resettled Armenians from Syria in the occupied territories.  He asked Armenia about recent military exercises, and what Armenian officers were doing in a certain region.  If Armenia was interested in peace, withdrawing forces from occupied areas of Azerbaijan would suffice.  Armenia should end its provocations, as the conflict could only be solved through the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Azerbaijan.

The representative of Armenia, exercising her right of reply, rejected the accusations made by her Azerbaijani counterpart, noting that Azerbaijan’s goal was the extermination of the people of Nagorno-Karabakh. Azerbaijan’s aggression had shown the unsustainability of a military solution.  A peaceful solution must be found, she said, in line with existing agreements.

The observer of the State of Palestine noted the “distorted” reality presented by Israel’s representative, stressing that ignoring war crimes committed by Israel constituted a complete denial of human rights and self-determination.  There was a long list of human rights violations committed by Israel.  The views expressed by that Government were dehumanizing and had shown the true nature of the occupying power.  She condemned human rights violations against all children, stressing that all attacks must stop.

The representative of the Ukraine provided an overview of the history and situation of Crimea, drawing attention to early plans by the Russian President to attack Crimea, which had been documented.  The Russian representative had made contradictory statements regarding the status of Crimea.

The representative of Georgia said children in the occupied territories of Georgia were deprived of their right to receive their education in their native Georgian language, and that there was discrimination and harassment of the Georgian population living in the occupied territories.  The absence of international monitoring meant the Russian Federation had no credibility whatsoever.  The conflict had two parties, Georgia defending itself and Russian Federation’s aggression.

The representative of Azerbaijan said barbarism had been committed by Armenian forces in occupied territories of Azerbaijan, and high-ranking officials of Armenia had admitted their responsibility for that carnage.  The President of Armenia had said he had no regrets for Azerbaijani civilian casualties. 

The representative of Armenia said that as far as the right to self-determination was concerned, Azerbaijan had recognized that self-determination should be part of the solution for the Nagorno-Karabakh region.  Armenia was not surprised Azerbaijan put forward false allegations on cease-fires related to the Nagorno-Karabakh region.

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Urgent Action Needed to Protect Children from Forced Labour, Other Forms of Exploitation, Special Mandate Holders Tell Third Committee

The migration crisis, forced marriage, forced labour and sexual slavery were only some of the problems facing the children around the world, speakers told the Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural) today as it moved into its second day of discussion on the rights of children.

The day featured interactive dialogues with Special Mandate Holders and United Nations officials charged with ensuring adherence to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the broader protection of children’s rights throughout the world.

Benyam Dawit Mezmur, Chair of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, provided an update on the implementation of the Convention and its three Optional Protocols on, respectively:  involvement of children in armed conflict; the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography; and a communications procedure.  He said barriers to the full realization of child rights included violence, poor health, justice and the migration crisis, noting that poverty was not only a challenge in low-income countries.

Global recognition of the need to eradicate child, early and forced marriage as a human rights priority was reflected in the inclusion of a specific target in the Sustainable Development Goals, said Charles Radcliffe, Chief of the Equality and Non-Discrimination Section of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), as he introduced the Secretary-General’s report on child and forced marriages.

Maud de Boer-Buquicchio, Special Rapporteur on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, said children who had been sold or engaged in forced labour were often isolated, distrusted police, feared retaliation and lacked documentation.  As such, they needed child-sensitive access to justice and redress, she said.

When the floor was opened for general debate, nearly 50 speakers outlined policies and plans to end violence against children, with Myanmar’s representative stressing, on behalf of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), that young people’s full participation was essential not only for themselves, but also to help build child-sensitive legislation and strategies.

Delegates also addressed the need to protect child migrants and refugees, with the representative of Dominican Republic, speaking on behalf of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), stressing that migrant children must not face punitive measures solely based on their status.  Egypt’s representative underscored that migrant and refugee children required special care.  Speaking to the scale of the problem, the European Union’s representative said that one in four asylum applicants in Europe was a child, and that 31 per cent of the 1 million refugees who had arrived in Europe in 2015 were children.  Niger’s representative, meanwhile, on behalf of the African States, underlined that political will was needed to identify long-term solutions to mitigate displacement’s root causes and structural factors.

Also speaking today were representatives of Barbados (on behalf of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), Zimbabwe (on behalf of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), United States, Paraguay, Switzerland, Poland, South Africa, Italy, Argentina, Mexico, Colombia, Cuba, Russian Federation, Nicaragua, Libya, Peru, Viet Nam, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Brazil, Kenya, Norway, Syria, Liechtenstein, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Spain, Zambia, Chile, Thailand, Singapore, Israel, Turkey, Croatia, Costa Rica, Qatar, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Canada, Iraq, Nigeria, and Ethiopia.  A representative of the Holy See also spoke.

The Third Committee will reconvene at 10 a.m. on Friday, 14 October, to conclude its debate on the rights of children.

Background

The Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural) met this morning to continue its debate on the promotion and protection of the rights of children.  For information, see Press Release GA/SHC/4168.

Interactive Dialogues

CHARLES RADCLIFFE, Chief of the Equality and Non-Discrimination Section of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), introduced the Secretary-General’s report on child and forced marriages (document A/71/253).  Global recognition of the need to eradicate child, early and forced marriage — as a development and a human rights priority — was exemplified by the inclusion of a specific target in the Sustainable Development Goals.  The report pointed to persistent differences in the legal age of marriage for girls and boys and discrepancies in marriage provisions in plural legal systems, where lower ages were often allowed for customary or religious marriages.  Very few initiatives to eliminate discriminatory provisions in such areas as access to land, divorce and custody had been discussed in the submissions for the report.

He said that successfully tackling child, early and forced marriage required moving beyond small-scale initiatives towards well-defined, rights-based and locally relevant holistic strategies based on evidence and including legal and policy measures.  Holistic strategies required adequate human, technical and financial resources and should be coordinated at the local, regional and national levels and across sectors such as education, health, justice and social welfare, with the involvement of women and girls, among others.  Measurement, evaluation and learning, including data collection and disaggregation, were needed to identify vulnerable populations and to assess progress.  A rights-based approach to child and forced marriage was essential to work towards a future where not only marriage was delayed, but the choices of girls and women were expanded beyond marriage.

BENYAM DAWIT MEZMUR, Chair of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), provided an update on the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its Optional Protocols.  While he was pleased to announce that the Convention itself had been ratified or acceded to by 196 States, he expressed regret that the Optional Protocol on a communications procedure had been ratified by only 29 States.  The Committee was increasing its engagement with States through informal meetings and solicitation of inputs on draft versions of General Comments. 

He went on to address some of the barriers to the full realization of child rights, namely poverty, violence, poor health, justice and the migration crisis.  Poverty was not only a challenge in low-income countries, he pointed out.  In addition to State-sanctioned forms of violence, he expressed concern about the sexual exploitation and abuse of children by peacekeepers.  Another negative development was the introduction of bills and laws by several States that had reduced the minimum age of criminal responsibility to below 18 years.  He expressed hope that States’ commitments to the 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development would encourage them to implement the Convention’s provisions and optional protocols.

When the floor opened, delegates inquired about the status of the Convention’s Optional Protocol on a communications procedure and about the negative impact of the migration crisis on children’s rights.

Mr. MEZMUR, responding to a question by the representative of the European Union, said he had not anticipated there would be only 29 ratifications to the Optional Protocol on a communications procedure.  That Optional Protocol was about providing children access to justice, and thus, it was central for moving children’s rights from rhetoric to remedies.  As there had been enthusiasm about the document, it was unknown why the ratification rate had been slow.  He suggested that States that had ratified the Optional Protocol inform those that had not about measures they had taken on the ground. 

He said General Comment No. 19 (2016) on public budgeting for the realization of children’s rights was important because it articulated issues of planning and enacting follow-up.  Turning to the issue of children’s rights and the media, he said that exposure sometimes led to risk, but it was when risk led to harm that children’s rights came into the picture.  He said the Committee wanted to strengthen coordination with States, singling out the need for election meetings to contain more substance.  Finally, he noted that if the full implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child was an Olympic sport, no State would manage a medal.  The international community needed to create a world fit for children.

Participating in the interactive dialogue were representatives of the European Union, Mexico, and Ireland.

MAUD DE BOER-BUQUICCHIO, Special Rapporteur on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, said children were particularly vulnerable to being sold and trafficked for forced labour in wars and armed conflicts.  Children had been abducted in Nigeria by Boko Haram for sexual slavery and forced labour.  Yazidi girls had been sold by Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL/Da’esh) in slave markets in Iraq for sexual slavery and forced domestic labour.  More recently, in April, 159 children had been abducted in Ethiopia’s Gambella region, 68 of whom were still missing.  Children also had been sold and forced to work in various other sectors, including agriculture, manufacturing, forced begging, forced criminal activities and servile marriage.  The latest global estimate had found that 5.5 million children were victims of forced labour, with girls representing the greater share of the total.

In combatting the sale of children for forced labour, States must regulate the practices of intermediaries, she said.  Promoting and monitoring fair recruitment processes for decent work conditions, and deterring intermediaries from delivering or selling children for labour exploitation were vital for such regulation.  Effective and well-resourced labour inspection was essential, as forced labour was part of the exploitative situations labour inspectors were meant to monitor through their unannounced visits to private premises.  There were also initiatives aimed at filling the inspection gap by offering a social label or certification on the production of goods to ensure that no child labour had been used in production.  Finally, access to an effective remedy was also crucial in preventing the phenomenon.  Children who had been sold and were engaged in forced labour were often isolated, distrusted police, feared retaliation and lacked documentation.  Consequently, they needed child-sensitive access to justice and redress.

Delegates expressed concern about a lack of clarity in the terminology used when discussing children’s rights and inquired about efforts to develop definitions.  Some asked what could be done in partnership with the private sector to strengthen oversight and accountability throughout the supply chain, while others asked about best practices for complaint mechanisms and remedies available to victims.

Ms. DE BOER DE BUGUICCHIO replied that it was important to distinguish between trafficking and forced labour when formulating an appropriate legal response and accountability.  Legislation must be clear and its scope defined.  Victims must not be penalized, even if they had participated in criminal activities.  Cooperation with the International Labour Organization (ILO) was crucial, taking into account all relevant international human rights mechanisms.  Definitions of terminology were developed in an inter-agency working group, along with guidelines on their appropriate use.  Regarding the use of the term pornography, she expressed her hope that that question would be addressed during renewal of the Special Rapporteur mandate. 

She went on to say that the term might be inappropriate and that child abuse would be more appropriate.  The same consideration applied to use of the term child prostitution.  “Children did not prostitute themselves, they were forced to do so,” she said.  Regarding migration, she expressed her hope for the integration of children’s rights in the relevant legal instrument, also taking into account the related issues of trafficking, sale of children and forced labour.  Complaint mechanisms and remedies must be child-friendly and easily accessible, she said, adding that the creation of an Ombudsman for children could be useful.  Regarding partnerships with the private sector, she encouraged stronger oversight, monitoring and unannounced assessments.

Participating in the interactive dialogue were representatives of the European Union, United States, South Africa, Slovenia, Mexico, Nigeria, Georgia, Russian Federation, United Kingdom and Morocco.

Statements on Rights of Children

MILDRED GUZMAN (Dominican Republic), speaking on behalf of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), said the region faced important challenges.  Children with disabilities were among the most marginalized and excluded, disproportionately subjected to abuse and violence, and therefore required particular protection.  Indigenous children also deserved special attention.  He expressed the region’s commitment to strengthening the protection of vulnerable children, voicing concern about mass migration and its effects. 

In that context, he encouraged States to use the best practices developed by OHCHR, stressing that migrant children must not face punitive measures solely based on their status.  He also expressed concern about bullying and called for appropriate measures to address that issue.  Further, he attached great importance to international cooperation, including North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation, stressing the need for programs focused on early childhood, which yielded the best results.  He also emphasized the need to maintain education and ensure food security.

ABDALLAH WAFY (Niger), speaking on behalf of the African Group, said that numerous challenges continued to hinder free, universal and compulsory primary education for all children.  Children caught up in conflicts in some African States had been forced to drop out of school.  The Group supported achievements consolidated by the “Children, Not Soldiers” campaign, commending States that had ended and prevented the recruitment of children by security forces.  Protecting displaced children and providing for their health care and education were important steps, but political will was needed to identify long-term solutions to mitigate displacement’s root causes and structural factors.

He went on to note that the African Union had declared a silencing of guns by 2020, pledging not to bequeath the burden of conflict to the next generation and committing to create an annual platform for policy dialogue that covered developments, constraints and measures geared towards achieving Agenda 2063.  He urged continued advocacy and support for the elimination of female genital mutilation and forced child marriage.  Partnerships must be strengthened to realize a “world fit for children”.

KEITH MARSHALL (Barbados), speaking for the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and endorsing the statement of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), said the Secretary-General’s reports were “critical to our work”.  The state of the world’s children had much improved.  Deaths of children under 5 years of age, the percentage of underweight children, maternal mortality and the number of out-of-school children had all declined sharply.  Still, in too many instances, the rights of children were still not respected.

HAU DO SUAN (Myanmar), speaking on behalf of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and his own country, noted that the ASEAN Commission on the Promotion and Protection of the Right of Women and Children was established in 2004.  In order to strengthen regional efforts for promoting the cause of women and children, the Strategic Framework and Plan of Action for Social Welfare, Family and Children (2011-2015) was adopted.  At its February 2016 meeting in Jakarta, the Commission had reviewed ASEAN Early Childhood Care, Development and Education Quality Standards, particularly for childcare services, focusing on children from birth to 4 years old and pre-school services.

On the technology front, he said the Network of Social Service Agencies had set up a website with links to the ASEAN and the Commission websites, serving as a platform for the 33 ASEAN social service agencies to share information, knowledge and expertise on matters relating to violence against women and children.  ASEAN also collaborated with United Nations agencies and other development partners.  The Commission had carried out projects supported by the European Union and the United States as well as those collaborated by UNICEF and the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN-Women).

He said CARICOM Member States had committed to adopt comprehensive early childhood development policies, harmonize national legislation with the Convention, and formulate broad policies and plans to prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against children and adolescents.  Expressing concern over the threats to migrant and refugee children, he welcomed the inclusion of that topic in the draft resolution on the rights of children to be considered by the Third Committee this year.  CARICOM had also established an informal regional working group to discuss the impact of migration on children and develop recommendations for action.  It was necessary to make data more available, address the most disadvantaged boys and girls, and incorporate children and adolescents into decision-making.

FREDERICK M. SHAVA (Zimbabwe), speaking on behalf of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), associated himself with the Group of 77 and China and the African Group.  The commitment to children’s rights was underpinned by the fact that all SADC Member States had ratified the Convention and acceded to the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child.  National laws and action plans had facilitated the implementation of those instruments, he said, noting that this year, the bloc’s Parliamentary Forum had adopted the first-ever model law on child marriage in the region.  It would require Member States to harmonize their national laws to prevent child marriage. 

Violence against children and the effects of armed conflict on them were challenges, he said.  Children deserved to live in the protection of a caring family.  The family structure provided better outcomes against exploitation, trafficking, child labour and early marriages and other forms of physical, sexual and emotional abuse.  It was through the family that children found love and attention.  The HIV/AIDS pandemic remained a heavy burden on the region, compounding already high unemployment and inadequate safety nets.  SADC Member States were committed to the promotion and protection of children’s rights, a task that required concerted effort and enormous resources.

JOANNE ADAMSON (European Union) said the 2030 Agenda could advance the rights of millions of children who lacked health care, water and sanitation, social services, quality education, or had been exposed to violence.  One in four asylum applicants in Europe was a child, and 31 per cent of the 1 million refugees who had arrived in Europe in 2015 were children.  The bloc was committed to achieving a more humane, fair, and efficient common European asylum policy, a better-managed migration policy, and to provide enhanced procedural guarantees to vulnerable asylum-seekers, particularly unaccompanied children.  The Convention was an integral part of the Union’s fundamental rights policy, he said, stressing the importance of the third Optional Protocol on a communications procedure.

Expressing concern about the exploitation of migrants and refugees by criminal or terrorist groups — such as ISIL/Da’esh — she said cooperation among countries was essential to protect child victims of trafficking.  Education in emergencies and protracted crises remained a top priority.  As a growing number of children were being recruited and used by armed forces, groups and gangs, the European Union promoted a comprehensive approach by supporting the identification, demobilisation and reintegration of former child soldiers and to prevent their recruitment.

KELLY L. RAZZOUK (United States) said all over the world, children’s rights continued to be violated.  In Syria, half the casualties were children.  One deadly air strike had targeted a maternity hospital.  UNICEF had named Syria the most dangerous place in the world to be a child.  At the Leaders’ Summit on Refugees, the President had spoken about a 5 year-old from Aleppo, who had endured unbearable things, she said, noting that the United States had provided nearly $15 million to UNICEF to send refugee children to school.  Domestically, the United States had invested more than $1 billion in early childhood education.  She urged redoubled efforts to ensure that children inherited a world they deserved.

FATMAALZAHRAA HASSAN ABDELAZIZ ABDELKAWY (Egypt) said the family was the protector of children and held the main responsibility for providing for them.  Children could not develop without the respect of their parents, culture and language, among other factors, she said, pressing the international community to reconsider the recommendations of the 1996 “Graca Machel” report, which detailed the needs of children in armed conflict.  Advocating special care for migrant and refugee children, she commended the cooperation between Egypt and UNICEF, expressing hope for further joint efforts in the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals.  Egypt was committed to implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international instruments to which it was party.

MARCELO SCAPPINI (Paraguay), associating himself with CELAC, said investments in children and adolescents were essential for the country’s development.  As such, it was paramount to implement child protection programs to guarantee their human rights.  Noting that the Government had focused on the special situation of street children, he said food had been provided to school children as a way to support attendance and performance.  Physical punishment and other degrading treatment were prohibited by law, he said, advocating rights-based policies to address poverty and violence, which were major concerns.

Ms. JOUBLI (Switzerland) called upon States that had not yet done so to ratify the Convention and its Optional Protocols.  For its part, Switzerland planned to ratify the Third Protocol.  The 2030 Agenda provided a framework for addressing many problems facing children around the world.  Switzerland would fund a post within the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in Geneva to facilitate the launch of a global study on children deprived of liberty, as called for by General Assembly resolution 69/147.  Despite progress achieved since the 1996 adoption of resolution 51/77, many challenges remained.  Switzerland was especially concerned by adverse consequences of long-running conflicts for civilians and children’s rights.  In particular, the systematic nature of attacks on hospitals and schools in Afghanistan, Yemen and Syria suggested those attacks were part of a deliberate strategy by certain parties.  She reiterated that those attacks constituted a serious violation of international humanitarian law.

PAWEŁ RADOMSKI (Poland), associating himself with the European Union, recognized that while progress had been made, emerging challenges, such as cyberbullying and other risks related to new technologies, persisted.  More must be done to protect unaccompanied migrant children, work which should include legal representation, decent living conditions and appropriate social services.  Above all, he said, the priority must be to reunite children with their families.

MAHLATSE MMINELE (South Africa), associating himself with the African Group and SADC, said children continued to be abducted and forcibly conscripted or recruited into service as sex slaves, helpers, guards and armed fighters, which violated their rights.  Many had died, while others had been displaced, disabled and allowed to suffer untold emotional, developmental, physical, mental and spiritual harm.  Armed conflict destroyed the State structures that provided social services, situations that demanded immediate as well as long-term collective action.  Expressing his country’s full commitment to the implementation of the Convention, its Optional Protocols and other human rights instruments, he stressed that “sustainable societies can only have a prosperous future when their children are safe, free from harm and thrive in environments that prioritize the promotion, protection and fulfilment of the rights of the child”.

JESSICA CUPELLINI (Italy), endorsing the position of the European Union, said that her country placed the highest premium on advancing children’s rights in both legislative terms and actual reality.  In January, Italy had ratified the third Optional Protocol, allowing children to bring claim of rights violations to an international body if they had been inadequately addressed through national courts.  Italy had also adopted a fourth National Action Plan on the Rights and Development of the Child to combat child poverty, support early childhood development and schools systems, and support parenting.  Finally, the situation of children and adolescent migrants was of particular concern, as Italy had received more than 21,000 unaccompanied minors in 2016.  The Government promoted a migration compact within the European Union and a “humanitarian corridor project” aimed at saving the most vulnerable migrants.  Migrant and refugee children must be treated “as children first and foremost”, she asserted.

MARTÍN GARCÍA MORITÁN (Argentina), associating himself with CELAC, said his country continued to work towards the realization of children’s rights, as enshrined in the Argentinean Constitution.  Children were defined as “subjects of law”, and as such, entitled to all rights.  Stressing that Argentina had taken measures to improve maternal health, children’s health services and education, he said commercial sexual exploitation was a more appropriate term to be used in the mandate of the Special Rapporteur who had briefed the Committee this morning.

Ms. CASTILLO (Mexico), stressing that children’s rights were first and foremost human rights, said her country had adopted a law on the rights of children and adolescents, which recognized that minors were holders of rights and should be involved in decisions affecting their development.  Mexico, with others, was preparing a draft resolution on the rights of migrant children.  It called for global solidarity with migrant children, recognizing that they suffered disproportionately from xenophobia and lack of access to health care and education.  They often were victims of trafficking and sexual exploitation.  Noting that Mexico would present a resolution entitled “Protection of Children against Peer Bullying”, she said bullying was an underappreciated problem that was of great concern to nine out of ten children, according to a UNICEF survey.

MIGUEL CAMILO RUIZ BLANCO (Colombia), endorsing the position of CELAC, welcomed the greater protection of children against violence, as had been seen during the peace process in Colombia.  Noting that efforts had been taken to change harmful attitudes and behaviours, he called for a comprehensive framework on child protection, stressing the need to prioritize the needs of unaccompanied minors.  Ending bullying was another important responsibility for policymakers and those efforts must consider the experiences of victims.  For its part, Colombia had implemented programs in schools to prevent and punish bullying, he said.

CEPERO AGUILAR (Cuba) said that, in his country, no children were on the streets, nor had they been economically exploited.  Thanks to political will and Government efforts, the promotion and protection of children’s rights was a top priority, he said, adding that hunger, illiteracy, insalubrity, and discrimination against boys and girls were just bad memories.  “These achievements are the results of free and universal national health care and education systems,” he said, noting that the Parliament allocated more than 50 per cent of the State budget on health, education and social assistance.  Among other things, he stressed that all Cuban children had been vaccinated at birth against 13 communicable diseases, and the country was the first to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS and syphilis.

KRISTINA SUKACHEVA (Russian Federation), stressing that children were vulnerable and must be protected, said the family played an important role in that regard.  In her country, the Ombudsman for children promoted and protected children’s rights, represented their interests and contributed to the development of new laws.  She expressed her concern about distinguishing between the interests of children and those of their parents, emphasizing that the rights of parents — and their primary role in raising children — must be upheld.

MARIA CLARISA GOLDRICK (Nicaragua), associating with CELAC, appealed to countries that had not done so to ratify the Convention.  She reviewed a number of programmes that the Government had instituted to promote and protect children’s rights, among them, a campaign against bullying, which sought to prevent situations that would lead to conflict or hurt young people’s self-esteem.  On migration, she called on the international community to approach the challenge from a humanitarian perspective.  Protecting children’s rights was a matter of joint responsibility between the State and society, she said, and her Government’s ministries were working with families in that endeavour.

JASEM K. S. HARARI (Libya), associating himself with the African Group, drew attention to the impact of crises on children, stressing the need to ensure zero tolerance for violence against children.  The root causes of such abuse must be tackled, he said, stressing the need to develop a culture of non-violence so that children could grow up in peace and become productive members of society.

Ms. SALAZAR (Peru) said the 2030 Agenda provided an opportunity to harmonize national laws with the Convention, noting that her country was working closely with UNICEF in a number of areas.  Peru had made significant progress in terms of recognizing and protecting the rights of children and adolescents.  The 2012-2021 national action plan aimed to reduce infant mortality and malnutrition and to increase access to education and reduce violence against children.  The Government had also devised a national strategy to prevent child labour.  Recognizing the important role of human development for national growth, she said the country was committed to investing in quality public education and preparing its citizens for the modern world.

NGUYEN DUY THANH (Viet Nam), associating himself with ASEAN, described a number of national laws, policies and mechanisms to safeguard children’s best interests.  Among them was the Child Law, which set out a legal framework to ensure that all children were treated equally and their rights were protected, and the National Programme of Action on Prevention and Elimination of Child Labour.  Noting that the Government paid particular attention to poor children, children with disabilities and those from ethnic minorities, he said the full participation of young people was essential not only for themselves but also to help build child-sensitive legislation and strategies.  Viet Nam had universalized primary education and moved towards universal secondary education, and had virtually eliminated gender inequality in access to education.  Infant and child mortality had been halved since 1990.

KARIMA BARDAOUI (Tunisia) said a number of national measures had been taken to protect children from violence and exploitation, noting that infrastructure had improved and awareness was being raised about the need to protect and promote children’s rights in order to avoid marginalization.  Further, “web radios” had been set up to reach children in remote areas, she said, stressing that children had hopes for a better world.

Mr. AL MEHAIRI (United Arab Emirates) recalled that the number of refugee children had surpassed 10 million and they risked falling prey to terrorists and extremists.  As part of the Government’s commitment to upholding children’s rights, it recently had adopted a law with 75 articles to protect children.  It also had been involved in a number of international efforts to reduce maternal and child mortality, including the “Every Woman, Every Child” movement, and to provide quality education to low-income countries.

ALEX GIACOMELLI DA SILVA (Brazil), noting that between 2004 and 2014, extreme poverty had fallen 60 per cent, and said children had been the priority target of cash-transfer programmes.  Some 14 million families had benefitted from the Family Allowance Programme, and an estimated 8 million children had been lifted from poverty in the last decade as a result of public investments.  This week, Brazil had launched a $100 million social programme to ensure that children received proper care in nutrition, health and education.  It aimed to reach 750,000 children by 2017.  Further, Brazil had achieved, ahead of schedule, the Millennium Development Goals target on equality in the educational system.  The country also had initiated a national programme to combat sexual violence against children and adolescents.

SUSAN W. MWANGI (Kenya), associating herself with the African Group and the Group of 77, described her country’s progress in realizing children’s rights, notably in the areas of survival, development, protection and participation.  Noting that Kenya’s Constitution recognized the right to education, she said the Government had introduced free primary education.  As children had the right to the highest health standards, the Government provided health services to children during antenatal and post-natal periods through their lifetime.  Advances made in halting HIV/AIDS and malaria over the last decade could be wiped away if resources for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission and other interventions were not sustained, he said, describing Kenya’s efforts to eliminate female genital mutilation, child marriage and the sexual exploitation and trafficking of children.

MAY-ELIN STENER (Norway) stressed the importance of the right to education during times of peace and conflict, as it was essential to economic development.  Norway had doubled its aid to education, and today, more girls could attend primary school.  Education also reduced the likelihood of falling prey to trafficking, child labour and sexual exploitation, she said, stressing that female genital mutilation was harmful and that early and forced marriages deprived girls of their childhood.  She expressed deep concern about the pervasiveness of violence against children, noting that Norway had developed an “escalation plan” for combatting violence against women and encouraging States to ban corporal punishment.

AMJAD QASSEM AGHA (Syria) said Syrian children had been victims of a ruthless, aggressive terrorist campaign that targeted the nation’s social fabric.  As a result, they had been forced to set sail over rough seas to escape.  He also expressed concern about groups’ efforts to indoctrinate children with extremist ideologies — a practice that could create a generation of people who loved violence and terrorism.  Recalling a video of a Palestinian boy whose head had been severed by a terrorist group in Aleppo, he said some had referred to that group as “moderate opposition”.  Some States that now cried about the children of Aleppo were partners in spilling their blood.  He expressed hope they would learn from their mistakes in Viet Nam, Afghanistan, Nicaragua and elsewhere.

KATHRIN NESCHER (Liechtenstein), noting that some 28 million children had fled violence, said children lived in a world where generations grew up in situations of conflict and displacement, which presented a major threat to the protection and realization of human rights.  Liechtenstein had created mechanisms to ensure that children could enjoy their rights and that perpetrators were held accountable.  Expressing deep concern about attacks against schools and hospitals in Aleppo, she said those facilities were protected by international humanitarian law, and thus, such attacks constituted war crimes.  A lack of access to education was a gross human rights violation, she said, underscoring great risks facing unaccompanied children.

Ms. IBRAHIM (Maldives) said that in addition to the rights guaranteed to children under its Constitution, her country had enacted laws to further protect children, including disabled children.  Substantial progress had been made in reducing child mortality, improving maternal health and combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other communicable diseases.  It was imperative that national laws fully comply with international human rights standards.  For its part, Maldives had enacted the Child Sexual Offense Act and the Anti-Trafficking of Persons Act, criminalizing sexual and other activities against children, and providing additional procedural rights to child victims.  Further, the “Ahan”, or “Listen”, campaign aimed to change attitudes, perceptions and behaviours towards children, while a child helpline operated as a nationwide toll-free mechanism for reporting child abuse.  Measures to combat bullying also had been taken. 

MADHUKA WICKRAMARACHCHI (Sri Lanka), associating himself with the Group of 77, said his Government guaranteed equality to all its citizens and made special provisions for the advancement of women, children and persons with disabilities.  Describing national policies to strengthen children’s rights and protections — including the Domestic Violence Act, the Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children (Amendment) Act, and child labour laws that increased the minimum employment age from 12 to 14 years — he emphasized that early marriage in Sri Lanka could not be viewed as a “traditional” or customary practice.  The General Marriage Ordinance set the marriage age at 18 years, while a 1995 reform stated that sex with a girl under 16 years constituted child abuse and statutory rape.  Sri Lanka was among five countries with a law in place that prohibited bullying in schools.  It also had enacted measures to protect children of migrant workers. 

Mr. NUNO (Spain), endorsing the position of the European Union, said his country had ratified the Convention and its three Optional Protocols.  The Government had passed two legislative reforms to improve its education system and protection mechanisms, including increasing the minimum age for marriage and sexual consent and strengthening penal laws for the exploitation and abuse of children and adolescents.  In response to recommendations from the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Government, with support from the UNICEF National Committee, had established a new website to disaggregate and make available data on children.  It had also established a commission to ensure that all policies were in line with the best interests of children and Spain’s commitments under the Convention.  On migration, he underscored that children, regardless of their place of origin, were children, with rights that must be protected by all.  “We can and we must do more,” he concluded.

MWABA P. KASESE-BOTA (Zambia), noting that half her country’s population was younger than 18 years old, said the Government was strengthening all its child-related legislation.  Once fully implemented, national policy would enhance children’s access to education, health, water and sanitation, and shelter, as well as enhance the accountability of ministries.  Children, however, still faced such challenges as poverty, disease, limited access to education, alcohol and drug abuse, and child trafficking.  Zambia had enacted a free education policy at the basic level, and a re-entry policy for girls who had become pregnant.  Noting that a five-year strategy had been adopted to reduce early and forced marriage, she expressed concern about antimicrobial resistance, which undermined health systems, and she called on development partners to help in that regard.

BERNARDITO AUZA, Permanent Observer of the Holy See, said 50 million children around the world were running from conflict, extreme poverty and various forms of abuse and exploitation.  Expressing concern about their increasing numbers, he noted that refugee and migrant children were prime targets of traffickers and exploiters and most vulnerable to extreme weather.  “These harrowing situations of children remind us to commit ourselves to fighting the root causes of their sufferings,” he said, emphasizing that today’s mass displacement of people was man-made.  Since human choices provoked conflicts and wars, it was well within the international community’s power and responsibility to address them.

GLORIA CID CARREÑO (Chile), associating herself with CELAC, said her country had appointed a national council on children, which coordinated work among all bodies charged with child protection responsibilities.  Progress had been made in establishing political and normative conditions conducive to those efforts, she said, noting that children’s potential depended on their surroundings, meaning that the social and cultural environment should focus on creativity and inclusivity.  Chile had also engaged families and communities in its efforts to protect children.  She expressed support for more research on violence against children, with a view to addressing its root causes.

The youth delegate from Thailand said young people must play a significant role in the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals, which were linked with children’s rights.  The right to education was an intrinsic one that would enable young people to realize boundless opportunities.  All children in the country, regardless of their nationality or legal status, were entitled to 12 years of free education.  The Child Support Grant Scheme provided a monthly cash allowance for parents of new-borns to 3 year-olds living in impoverished households.  The UNICEF Country Programme Document aimed to support such efforts, and Thailand had worked closely with the Fund to strengthen the capacity of relevant Government agencies.  National efforts were also under way to combat violence against children, eradicate child labour and guarantee active youth participation.

TAN WEE ZI (Singapore) underscored the importance of ensuring quality and affordable childcare, noting that her country had set up the Early Childhood Development Agency in 2013 with a view to raising such standards.  Further, Singapore had introduced a pilot system, aiming to coordinate and strengthen support for low-income and vulnerable families with children aged 6 and below.  Under that programme, young children were identified and provided access to health, learning and development support.  It was crucial to protect children in family disputes.  To mitigate the impact of divorce on children, Singapore had amended its legislation in February, which now required couples with minor children to attend a parenting programme before they filed for divorce.

MS. HALEVI, youth delegate from Israel, said too many children were being denied their right to grow up in safety and security.  Inequality had taken a high toll on children, she said, noting that education and children’s rights were among the main pillars upon which the Israel had been built.  Children in Israel enjoyed State-funded education, access to health care and nutrition.  Also, the Government had partnered with civil society to establish mixed schools for Jewish and Arab children.  The most important role of education was to provide children truth and hope so that they could dream and aspire.

Mr. CARAY (Turkey) said his country had improved the legal and institutional frameworks for children’s rights, as reflected in the 2010 Constitutional amendment and the national strategy and action plan for 2013–2017.  Of particular importance was the education of girls.  Turkey’s development and humanitarian assistance programmes supported children in various emergency conflict and post-conflict situations.  Greater collective determination was needed to address the situation of children in armed conflict.  Noting that Turkey was host to more than 3 million Syrian and Iraqi refugees, he said it was doing its best to provide them education and health care, but had only managed to provide half of them education.  He called upon the international community to assist those efforts, in line with the principle of responsibility and burden sharing.

DANIJEL MEDAN (Croatia), associating himself with the European Union, stressed the interlinkage of the right to education with achieving sustainable development, noting that Croatia had been among the “champion countries” of the Global Education First Initiative.  It was important that the Human Rights Council retain its tradition of an annual day of discussion on the rights of the child.  Croatia was currently holding a conference with UNICEF to address the unprecedented migration flows and the plight of people affected by armed conflict.  Among its objectives was to exchange innovative solutions and examples of good practices in responding to the needs of migrant children.

Ms. GARCIA (Costa Rica), endorsing the position of CELAC, focused on violence against children.  As children from marginalized communities were the most vulnerable to poverty and inequality, their protection must be a national and a global priority.  She expressed particular concern about the treatment of children recruited into armed militias, who were too often treated as threats by the State upon their release.  Their reintegration must be prioritized, and in that regard, she welcomed wide support for the “Children, Not Soldiers” campaign, expressing hope it would reduce the use of children by militias and State armed forces.  She urged solidarity with the plight of migrants, especially unaccompanied minors, reminding States of their joint responsibility to protect them.

MS. AL-KHATER (Qatar), noting that children’s protection was among the Sustainable Development Goals, said the reports presented today were a reminder that significant challenges remained amid widespread, blatant violations of children’s rights.  More than half of refugees worldwide were under age 18.  Qatar was troubled by information in the reports, she said, underlining the need to protect the young generation.  For its part, Qatar had made education a priority, and at the national level, the country was persevering under the 2030 Agenda.

VILATSONE VISONNAVONG (Lao People’s Democratic Republic) said his country had strengthened its legal and policy framework to protect women and children from violence, including with the passage of laws on juvenile criminal procedure and on the prevention and combatting violence against women and children.  The new national action plan of action 2014-2020 to address all forms of violence was being implemented.  Further, nutrition strategies and vaccination campaigns were being executed, while free school meals had been launched in some rural and remote areas.  At the regional level, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic had participated in the ASEAN Commission on the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Women and Children.

Mr. JELINSKI (Canada) expressed deep concern about children’s human rights throughout the world.  Migrant, internally displaced and refugee children were vulnerable, as they were at high risk of being sexually exploited and trafficked.  The growing number of child migrants was a global priority which could not be left unanswered.  Reviewing national achievements, he singled out Canada’s $1 million contribution to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict.  Governments were obliged to ensure that children’s rights were respected, protected, and fulfilled.

Mr. AL-HUSSAINI (Iraq) said his country had approved measures to protect children’s rights, including the establishment of an office to address child marriage and child labour.  The terrorist threat could not be ignored, as children in the grips of terrorist organizations like Da’esh continued to suffer.  That situation was compounded by the poverty of families, he said, citing cases of recruitment and kidnapping.  He called on States to protect children by monitoring information and communications technology use for terrorist and criminal purposes, and by setting up an international intelligence agency to track terrorist activities.

Mr. ADEOYE (Nigeria) reaffirmed the Government’s commitment to the Convention and highlighted areas in which it had invested in child well-being, including education, nutrition, and protection.  He addressed the threat to children posed by Boko Haram and other terrorist groups, noting that Nigeria was building schools as part of its Safe School Initiative.  He announced that today, 21 Chibok girls had been freed and that the Government was providing psychosocial therapy for their reintegration.  He assured the Committee that the Government treated those children captured by Boko Haram as victims and not terrorists.  Nigeria was committed to strengthening its institutions and policies to end child, early and forced marriage.

MEKDELAWIT TAYE ALEMAYEHU (Ethiopia), associating herself with the African Group, said it was encouraging that States had implemented most of the Millennium Development Goals, adding that the 2030 Agenda would address remaining challenges such as extreme poverty, violence, extremism, among other issues.  As children constituted a large part of Ethiopia’s population, the country had established numerous policy and legislative frameworks and institutional mechanisms.  For example, the national child policy focused on development and growth, prevention and protection, and rehabilitation, care and support.  Ethiopia remained ready to implement the Sustainable Development Goals and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda to achieve inclusive, equitable and sustainable development for present and future citizens.

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Undernutrition taking huge toll on Chad’s economy, new UN-supported study finds

12 October 2016 – Chad’s economy is losing 575.8 billion CFA francs ($1.2 billion) per year, or 9.5 per cent of its gross domestic product (GDP), to the effects of childhood undernutrition and resultant increased healthcare costs, additional burdens on the education system and lower productivity by the workforce, a new United Nations-backed study has revealed.

The Cost of Hunger in Africa: the Social and Economic Impact of Child Undernutrition on Chad’s Long-Term Development, (CoCHA) found that more than half of the country’s adults (56.4 per cent) have suffered as a result of childhood stunting. This means that more than 3.4 million people of working age are unable to reach their full potential due to childhood undernutrition. The study equates this lower physical capacity to 63.7 billion CFA worth of loss in economic productivity, as well as 168.6 billion CFA in additional health costs.

“Africa, and Chad in particular, has the potential to reap a demographic dividend from a young, educated and skilled workforce,” said Dr. Margaret Agama-Anyetei, Head of the African Union’s Division for Health, Nutrition and Population in a joint news release.

“But,” she warned, “this potential can only be harnessed if the gains of early investments in the health and nutrition of its people, particularly women and children, are maintained and result in the desired economic growth.”

COHA is a Pan-African initiative led by the African Union Commission and the NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency, through the support of the COHA is a Pan-African initiative led by the African Union Commission and the NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency (NPCA), with support from the UN Economic Commission for Africa and the World Food Programme (WFP). The approach was adapted from a model developed by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) with WFP.

A WFP truck carrying food for 2,000 people being unloaded at the Kousseri internally displaced camp, located on the outskirts of Baga Sola, Chad. Photo: WFP/Adel Sarkozi

Today’s report is the ninth to be completed in Africa. Others include Burkina Faso, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Rwanda, Swaziland and Uganda. Studies are also currently under way in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Lesotho and Zimbabwe. On average, COHA has found that African economies are losing between 1.9 and 16 per cent of their GDP to child undernutrition.

To counter this loss and for Chad to achieve sustainable human and economic growth, the report urges that special attention be given to the early stages of life. A lack of measures to combat and eliminate childhood undernutrition will only escalate the country’s costs.

“The study provides us with compelling evidence of the consequences of child undernutrition, as well as the justification to increase investment in nutrition and the potential economic returns if we are to take aggressive measures towards eliminating stunting,” said Mary-Ellen McGroarty, Country Director of WFP Chad.

COHA’s study provides some of the information necessary to empower Chad to work towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). As Thomas Yanga, WFP’s Africa Office Director and Representative to the African Union and Economic Commission for Africa said in a statement on behalf of WFP and ECA, “The goal of eliminating stunting, and more broadly of eliminating hunger, will be achieved only through a sustained and coordinated effort.” His hope is that by highlighting the cost of hunger in Chad, the study will “pave the way for all stakeholders to take decisive action.”

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Preventing Climate Change, Acknowledging Needs of Specific States Focus, as Second Committee Concludes General Debate

Preventing climate change, enhancing international cooperation, and acknowledging the needs of specific groups and categories of States were necessary to implement the 2030 Agenda and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, Member States said today as the General Assembly’s Second Committee (Economic and Financial) concluded its general debate.

“Climate change is a serious threat to development,” said the representative of the United Republic of Tanzania.  “Early entry into force of the Paris Agreement is vital.”  Many States noted the risks climate change posed to their development plans, be it through natural hazards, desertification, or negative effects on glaciers.

The African continent’s development was already being threatened by climate change, said the representative of Niger, speaking on behalf of the African Group.  Land degradation was also advancing, and African countries were among the worst hit, along with mountainous regions and headwaters nations that were at risk of glacial melt due to climate change.  The representative of Kyrgyzstan noted that climate change had already led to increased natural hazards, increased glacial melts, devastation of mountain ecosystems and resultant effects on societies.  By 2025, the total area of glaciers in Kyrgyzstan could be reduced by 30 to 40 per cent, with a resultant decline in water flows, she said.  It was urgent to protect glaciers in headwater countries.

Several States highlighted the status of middle-income countries.  Those countries continued to face special challenges.  The representative of Mexico underscored the role of middle-income countries, which had much of the world’s population living in extreme poverty, and it was necessary to rethink the criteria for graduation of those countries as official development assistance recipients.  The representative of Chile said the majority of the United Nations membership were or would become middle-income countries in the near term, and it was necessary to strengthen United Nations support to those countries.  Nor could per capita income be the only tool by which to measure countries.

Many speakers said that it was necessary to strengthen international cooperation and partnerships to achieve the 2030 Agenda.  The representative of Rwanda highlighted the need for solidarity with vulnerable countries that could easily face economic downturns with the change of a few commodity prices.  Financing for development was a key factor in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, as was international trade.

A number of States highlighted the importance of adopting the quadrennial comprehensive policy review.  The review, said the representative of Paraguay, “will be crucial for forging correct strategies in the coming years.  This must be in line with the 2030 Agenda and take into account countries in special situations, notably landlocked developing countries.”  The representative of Australia stressed that the review “helps set direction for the UN system to implement the 2030 Agenda.”

While the work of the Second Committee was important, it needed to change the way it operated to ensure its relevance, stressed the representative of Australia.  The Committee needed to adhere to deadlines to achieve outcomes, and countries required sufficient time for consultations and debate on resolutions in order to achieve consensus.

Also speaking today were the representatives of Japan, Tajikistan, Panama, Botswana, Republic of Korea, Mauritania, Iraq, Georgia, Peru, Kazakhstan, Sudan, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Mongolia, Venezuela, Turkey, China, Morocco, Myanmar, Costa Rica, Fiji, Kenya, Algeria, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, El Salvador, Ecuador, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Yemen, Kuwait, South Africa, Bhutan, Zambia, Nepal, Guinea, Serbia, Tunisia, Equatorial Guinea, Jordan, Argentina and Liberia.

Representatives from the State of Palestine, Permanent Observer Mission of the Holy See, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN-Women), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Labour Organization (ILO) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) also spoke.

Statements

NOBORU SEKIGUCHI (Japan), recalling with regret that collective efforts towards the Second Committee’s revitalization had failed, stressed that “we must not reopen what we agreed to in 2015.”  The completion of the Committee’s work within the mutually-agreed deadlines should be strictly kept, while any programme budget implications that were not urgent, necessary or based on clear mandates should be kept off the negotiating table.  Describing Japan’s priorities for the upcoming session, he said the setting of the Committee’s deliberations on aspects of sustainable development should be well aligned with the 2015 international agreements, especially the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.  Expressing his readiness to adopt the historic New Urban Agenda — which would draw a whole picture of sustainable urbanization over the next 20 years — he also underscored the importance of implementing the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and pledged to support the sustainable development of countries in special situations.  Discussions on the quadrennial comprehensive policy review were also critical, he said, underlining the need to devise a reform plan that included a broader perspective.

MAHMADAMIN MAHMADAMINOV (Tajikistan) highlighted the important milestones reached in 2015, including the third International Conference on Financing for Development, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement on climate change.  There was a need to mobilize additional financial resources, notably official development assistance (ODA), the main component for financing development.  Countries that began their efforts to achieve a sustainable development agenda under less favourable conditions needed support.  Tajikistan was a host to a high-level conference on water and sanitation in August, and would put forth a draft resolution in the Second Committee on International Decade for Action, “Water for Sustainable Development, 2018-2028”, and encouraged all Member States to support it.

ISBETH LISBETH QUIEL MURCIA (Panama) noted that it had been a year since the 2030 Agenda had been adopted, stressing that the Second Committee was especially relevant in achieving its goals.  In stepping up its collective efforts, the Committee’s main work should be to strengthen the operational guide or road map towards those goals.  Adding that the Paris Agreement was vital for sustainable development, she said many Latin American and Caribbean nations had reaffirmed their commitments to combat climate change.  Panama had set up an international centre to ensure implementation of the 2030 Agenda and inclusive development.  It was also seeking to become a carbon hub for the region by managing sustainable forests and combating deforestation.

SALVADOR DE LARA RANGEL (Mexico) said that, with the adoption of the 2030 Agenda framing development as a vital cornerstone of the United Nations agenda, it was now up to the Organization and its development system to align itself to that agenda and to modify its approach.  The quadrennial comprehensive policy review extended to sustainable development and provided an opportunity to make the changes needed.  His country had been an active promoter of financing for development.  A cross‑cutting, multidimensional approach for financing was needed to push sustainable development forward.  He also underscored the role of middle-income countries, which had much of the world’s population living in extreme poverty.  It was necessary to rethink the criteria for graduation of those countries as ODA recipients.

TLHALEFO BASTILE MADISA (Botswana) said landlocked developing countries were faced with various challenges, including high transport costs, dependence on a single or limited number of commodities for export earnings, remoteness and isolation from world markets and a cumbersome transit procedure.  Countries’ efforts to overcome such difficulties on their own were insufficient, and there was a need for greater international support from all stakeholders, including transit partners.  Stressing that trade for landlocked countries was also key in achieving development goals, he said the World Trade Organization (WTO) remained vital in integrating those nations into global trade.  Climate change was another issue needing serious attention, as it continued to impact all economic sectors, manifested by constrained agricultural production, increased food insecurity, prolonged drought and water stress.

OH YOUNGJU (Republic of Korea) said that, while the international community had been focused on galvanizing political will for the implementation of the 2030 Agenda and the Paris Agreement, it must now create concrete actions for sustainable development.  To that end, the discussion on the quadrennial comprehensive policy review was vital in providing strategic guidance on the implementation of the sustainable development goals.  Furthermore, the reform of the United Nations development system should be based on gaps and lessons learned from the Millennium Development Goals.  With regards to the Paris accord, her country would “exert its best efforts” to ratify the instrument by the end of this year.  Parallel to that, her Government would also establish a national plan on climate change to achieve its greenhouse gas reduction targets, in addition to expanding its support to developing countries through the Green Climate Fund.

CARLOS OLGUÍN CIGARROA (Chile) said that the majority of United Nations membership were or would become middle-income countries in the near term.  It was necessary to strengthen the Organization’s support to those countries, as they faced special challenges in developing policies.  He believed it was important that per capita income could not be the only tool by which to measure countries.  On climate change, it was important to consider both mitigation and adaption, or else developing countries would be the most vulnerable.  Chile welcomed the flexibility shown by all nations on a new urban agenda in preparation for the Habitat III conference.

TUVAKO NATHANIEL MANONGI (United Republic of Tanzania), associating himself with the African Group and the “Group of 77” developing countries and China, said that review of sustainable development progress would help build ownership of the 2030 Agenda and create a virtuous cycle of implementation.  Studies had shown that land degradation was advancing and that African countries were among the worst hit.  Combating land degradation could contribute to easing forced migration flows influenced by a number of factors, including economic, social, security and environmental concerns.  That could in turn reduce current and potential fighting over resources.  He also called on all Member States to recognize the need to intensify efforts to enhance coherence and consistency of the international financial system and to tackle challenges confronting the global economy.  Welcoming the establishment of the Technology Bank for the Least Developed Countries, he warned that an abrupt cut of assistance towards new graduates could lead into falling back to their previous status.

EL HACEN ELEYATT (Mauritania) said the world was confronting several challenges, including terrorism and poverty, as well as underdevelopment in certain regions.  It was necessary to improve people’s welfare through the principles of mutual cooperation.  Noting that the 2030 Agenda was vital in transforming the world and achieving prosperity, he said Mauritania had set up a national programme to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.  His country had managed to alleviate poverty and its manifestations by improving income and increasing employment for youth.  The Government had adopted policies to empower women, who were now present in all sectors of society.  It had also established a social security programme that combated poverty and assisted vulnerable groups through health benefits and income producing projects.  In addition, it had worked to improve governance through transparency and by combatting corruption.

Mr. AL HAYANI (Iraq), associating himself with the Group of 77, said the market economy was still the global model for development, notably through trade, wealth‑generation and technological innovation.  An unregulated market economy, however, would exhaust natural resources and cause economic crises.  As such, global economic growth needed to take into account the sustainable use of natural resources.  The goal of the WTO was to ensure the necessary conditions so that everyone had an equal chance, including developing countries that had not benefited from globalization.  He reaffirmed the importance of having more flexible membership criteria for States that were currently WTO observers, such as his country.  Sustainable development and economic development in Iraq faced major challenges due to terrorism, which had attacked peaceful cities, affecting economic prosperity and discouraging foreign investment.

JUAN MANUEL PEÑA (Paraguay), associating himself with the Group of 77, said eradicating poverty was the greatest challenge facing the world.  The 2030 Agenda must be implemented, along with other international programmes and plans, including the Addis Ababa Action Agenda.  It was vital to improve the global infrastructure and optimize mechanisms for international cooperation.  Stressing that developing countries were especially vulnerable to natural hazards, he said landlocked countries deserved special focus, as they were at greater risk to hazards like droughts and floods.  The United Nations should strengthen support for landlocked countries through the work of the Second Committee.  ODA was vital in implementing the 2030 Agenda, as were increased investments, capacity-building and a more inclusive international trading regime.

NINO SHEKRILADZE (Georgia) said that Georgia had participated in the first round of national voluntary reviews on the implementation of the 2030 Agenda, underscoring that “we all learn by doing, but we also learn better together”.  It was important that the United Nations system, with its technical expertise, supported Member States in implementing the Sustainable Development Goals.  The upcoming quadrennial comprehensive policy review would be central to ensure that the United Nations development system would perform its function effectively.  There was a financing gap for the implementation of the Goals, and innovative financing could play a significant role in addressing that, alongside domestic financial flows, foreign direct investment and ODA.  In that regard, Georgia, through the establishment of its Solidarity Fund, had become an active member of the global partnership on innovative financing.

MIRGUL MOLDOISAEVA (Kyrgyzstan), expressing her full supported for the 2030 Agenda, said that her country had actively begun its implementation.  Developing, mountainous, landlocked countries such as Kyrgyzstan faced unique circumstances and the inclusion of those issues in the Agenda was welcome.  Market access would help such landlocked developing countries achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.  Trade barriers and unilateral border closures were unhelpful.  Climate change had already led to increased natural disasters, increased glacial melts, devastation of mountain ecosystems and resultant negative effects on societies.  By 2025, the total area of glaciers in Kyrgyzstan could be reduced by 30 to 40 per cent, with a resultant decline in water flows.  It was urgent to protect glaciers in headwater countries.

JULIAN SIMPSON (Australia) said the Committee had a central role to play in ensuring that the General Assembly was focused on the 2030 Agenda and responsive to issues central to its implementation.  “We must change the way this Committee operates to ensure it remains relevant and valued,” he said, stressing that “business as usual won’t do”.  Indeed, the Committee must be a platform for constructive debate where Member States could work cooperatively.  It was important that all Member States allow time to consult, discuss and debate resolutions by ensuring that texts were submitted within set deadlines.  Calling for early warning of resolutions with possible budgetary implications, he said the Committee should avoid re-prosecuting recent leader-level agreements.  In addition, it should work efficiently to provide space to negotiate the resolution on the quadrennial comprehensive policy review, which would help set the direction for the United Nations system in implementing the 2030 Agenda.

GUSTAVO MEZA-CUADRA (Peru), aligning his delegation with the Group of 77, said countries had a shared responsibility to implement the 2030 Agenda in ensuring sustained economic growth and preserving the planet for future generations.  The sustainable development partnership called for a stronger global framework and assured financing for development.  It was urgent to honour commitments and develop mechanisms to make resources available in achieving the Agenda.  Stressing that human beings must be at the heart of global efforts, he said development meant inclusion and the safeguarding of cultural diversity.  It was also necessary to focus on disaster risk reduction and the impacts of climate change.  His Government promoted the sustainable development of mountain areas, where people were subject to increased vulnerability and poverty, a challenge for middle-income countries like Peru.  In addition, it supported innovative initiatives for collective action to increase access to water and sanitation.

RUSLAN BULTRIKOV (Kazakhstan) stressed the importance of empowering women and girls, as well as youth.  It was important that all 17 Sustainable Development Goals be achieved, he said.  Kazakhstan was planning a green economy with reduced greenhouse-gas emissions, and was committed to ratifying the Paris Agreement in 2016.  It was important to identify marginalized populations that the 2030 Agenda had not touched.  Conflict prevention and resolution were also important.  Kazakhstan had managed to restore part of the Aral Sea and was rehabilitating the land around the Semipalatinsk nuclear-testing site with the help of the United Nations.  To achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, the efforts of landlocked developing countries would be needed to be matched by support from the international community.

ABU OBEIDA (Sudan), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the African Group, said the current session of the General Assembly was the first step towards implementing the 2030 Agenda.  His Government was focused on eradicating poverty, given its disastrous effects on people in his country.  All nations must progress in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, but developing countries faced challenges, including the slowdown of global economic growth, as well as the need for capacity-building, technology transfer and tighter cooperation, especially South-South.  It was also essential that a balance be reached in the international financial system to address unexpected shocks.  Countries, such as Sudan, also suffered from an external debt burden, which negated ODA benefits and other sources of funding.  In addition, they needed access to international trade markets, which would help drive development and growth.

JO TONG HYON (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) said that the independent right to development of all Member States should be respected for the successful implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals.  It was necessary to transcend differences in ideologies and social systems.  Coercive measures, such as sanctions, blockades and pressure imposed by a few countries against others, damaged development efforts.  The monopolistic control by a few countries of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF) and WTO could not be tolerated any further.  His Government would make every effort, despite the constant nuclear war threats, economic blockades and sanctions against it, to replace the old international order with a new one and to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

SUKHBOLD SUKHEE (Mongolia), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the Group of Landlocked Developing Countries, outlined his nation’s development plan in the area of reducing income inequality, ensuring quality education and achieving ecological balance.  Mongolia was also working on bringing about more efficiency and transparency in governance.  Challenges facing landlocked countries did not only affect economic growth, but also had major implications for social and environmental aspects of development.  Mongolia was certainly affected by climate change, but it also faced several “special human activities” that led to its serious desertification.  For example, poor crop cultivation practices were causing oil erosion.  Mongolia’s urban population had increased sharply in recent years with 68 per cent of people living in urban areas.  The capital’s population had doubled in just the last two decades.  Such rapid urbanization had caused myriad challenges including unemployment, congested traffic and pollution.

RAFAEL DARÍO RAMÍREZ CARREÑO (Venezuela) said the premise of the Bolivarian revolution was to ensure the greatest happiness for the country’s people.  Venezuela had a “Poverty Zero” plan for 2019, and would continue to reduce exclusion and seek greater equity to transform the lives of its people.  The capitalist system was unjust and generated poverty, and a fair international trade system was needed.  Venezuela advocated for reform of the international financial architecture, which was unjust towards the poorest countries.  Its decision-making processes needed to be democratized.  The sovereign management of natural resources should be considered as an alternative to control of these resources by transnational corporations.  War and conflict hindered development in many countries in the Middle East and Africa, and it was necessary to put an end to foreign interference in domestic matters.

BARIŞ CEYHUN ERCIYES (Turkey) said that his country was not only a reliable donor both in development cooperation and humanitarian assistance but was also hosting the largest refugee population in the world, totalling 3 million people.  Migration could contribute to sustainable development through proper management, common strategies and proactive dialogue.  “Any strategy can be successful if it is carried out collectively,” he said, adding that individual efforts simply could not produce lasting solutions.  Greater international cooperation, burden- and responsibility-sharing were needed to assist host countries and communities.  Turkey welcomed the recent consensus reached for refugees and migrants and expected the international community to meet its commitments to better respond to the global phenomenon.  On climate change, Turkey believed that water and sanitation were vital elements of the 2030 Agenda.  In regards to Member States’ support to build a new global water architecture, he stressed that such steps be taken cautiously and conducted in transparent manner.

WU HAITAO (China), associating himself with the Group of 77 , said it was important to stick to the path of win-win cooperation and honour ODA, especially in helping developing countries enhance capacity.  It was also vital to improve global economic governance and create an enabling international environment for development.  Efforts should be directed towards building an open-world economy.  The United Nations must continue to play a central role in coordinating such development efforts.  Countries would do better by strengthening communication and coordination in macro-economic policy in order to avoid negative spillover.  As the second largest economy in the world, his Government had taken measures to adapt to the “new normal” of its economic development, including upgrading its economic structure and adding new drivers for economic and social development.  China had engaged in an “all-out” endeavour to achieve sustainable development.

OMAR HILALE (Morocco), associating himself with the Group of 77, said his country had integrated the 2030 Agenda directly into its Government’s policies and plans.  It had set implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals as a socioeconomic reference point, including women and youth in the process.  The Government had dedicated more than 54 per cent of its budget to financing the social sector to improve living conditions and eliminate social inequalities.  In promoting sustainable and renewable methods of consumption, Morocco had reached ninth place in the world in reducing greenhouse-gas emissions.  Implementing the 2030 Agenda was an opportunity for the Government to adopt a development model that had sustainability at its centre, was mindful of equality and human dignity, focused on public and private institutional effectiveness, and targeted those who needed assistance.

EI EI KHIN AYE (Myanmar) said her country’s national economic and development policy was designed to meet the Sustainable Development Goals.  Food security, poverty alleviation and the promotion of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises were some of Myanmar’s top priorities.  In addition, building nationwide peace and security was paramount, and her Government was committed to the ongoing initiatives of the Panglong Peace Conference that intended to bring sustainable peace to the country.  Combating HIV/AIDS was another highly prioritized goal, she said, adding that the country’s national strategy plan focused specifically on prevention, treatment and care for priority populations.  Emphasizing the importance of close cooperation between developed and developing countries, she highlighted that ODA would continue to be important to developing countries as they pursued the 2030 Agenda.  Her delegation also underscored the importance of the quadrennial comprehensive policy review that would help developing countries achieve the 2030 Agenda and “narrow the development divide among the Member States”, she concluded.

JUAN CARLOS MENDOZA-GARCÍA (Costa Rica) said the Second Committee’s biggest challenge during the session would be the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals.  Public and private resources must be mobilized towards that end.  Implementation should be accomplished through the solidarity and transparency of all Member States.  It must consider the needs of the most vulnerable and include middle-income countries, which represented the largest number of Member States in the United Nations.  He also stressed the importance of the Paris Agreement and announced that his country planned to ratify the accord in the coming days.

LUKE DAUNIVALU (Fiji), associating himself with the Group of 77, Association of Small Island States and the Group of Asia and the Pacific Small Island Developing States, stressed that implementation of the 2030 Agenda would not be realized without adequate financing.  It was necessary that the Addis Ababa Action Agenda be further strengthened and nations formed a global partnership.  As his country had had too many experiences with the adverse impacts of climate change, he urged countries that had not done so to ratify the Paris Agreement.  Extreme weather events would be more frequently experienced if the international community failed to fulfil its commitments.  Discussions at this year’s Second Committee session should maintain the focus on combatting climate change and contribute to finding durable solutions that tackle its multidimensional threat.  For Fiji, as a large ocean State, the Pacific was a lifeline and its declining health must be reversed.

ARTHUR AMAYA ANDAMBI (Kenya), associating himself with the Group of 77, noted that at the time of the adoption of the 2030 Agenda, his country was already implementing its Vision 2030 through five-year medium term plans which embraced the three dimensions of sustainable development.  It was important to focus on the means of implementation defined under all Goals and number 17 in particular.  It was critical to mobilize sufficient resources to meet the financial demands of implementation.  For Kenya, now a middle-income country, it was necessary to seek increased foreign direct investment (FDI) and to mobilize domestic resources.  Kenya continued to build effective and capable institutions at the national level to coordinate both within and across ministries.

MOURAD MEBARKI (Algeria), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the African Group, described the adoption of the 2030 Agenda and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda as global achievements.  The 2030 Agenda would ensure eradication of poverty if needed resources could be mobilized.  Algeria had succeeded in implementing the Millennium Development Goals and was working on the Sustainable Development Goals by putting in place national mechanisms drawing in all stakeholders.  He noted, however, challenges in funding the Goals, especially considering the negative forecast of international finance.  The World Bank had suggested increasing ODA and tightening South-South cooperation to combat tax evasion and illicit financial flows.  The international community must pay special heed to the funding needs of Africa and assist it in becoming more competitive in international trade.  It was difficult to put in place global partnership mechanisms without solidarity among nations.  The South-South partnership was the best proof of solidarity, but South-North cooperation and technology transfer must also be enhanced.

MAYTHONG THAMMAVONGSA (Lao People’s Democratic Republic), associating himself the Group of 77, said it was incumbent on countries, United Nations agencies and other organizations to mobilize resources to ensure the implementation of the 2030 Agenda.  The Sustainable Development Goals had been mainstreamed into his Government’s national development plans.  The country continued to remove unexploded ordnance that continued to impair the livelihoods of its citizens.  Enhanced partnerships would be important to mobilize resources to support the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals.  Over the past years, the international community had provided support and assistance to his country, which had contributed to its efforts to eradicate poverty.  Climate change was a global challenge, if it was not addressed adequately, and no one country would be able to cope with or address it alone.  His nation was among the first group of countries to ratify the Paris Agreement and that accord would be implemented in an effective manner.

Ms. ABDULLAH (Malaysia) expressed concern about the global economic crisis, which was having a negative impact on smaller economies.  She called on the international community to strengthen global financial regulation.  Repercussions of the financial crisis in developing countries were always costly and disruptive, especially in mobilizing resources for development.  She stressed the importance of South-South cooperation, which complemented efforts of developing countries to achieve sustainable development, but said it should not replace North-South cooperation.  The 2030 Agenda and Paris Agreement were important milestones in paving the way for sustainable development, but the lack of financial resources in developing countries should be addressed.  It was also important to acknowledge that every country had its own challenges in implementing the Sustainable Development Goals.

ABDALLAH WAFY (Niger), speaking on behalf of the African Group and associating himself with the Group of 77, said the continent’s plans for sustainable development were informed by the African Union’s Agenda 2063 as well as the 2030 Agenda.  Noting that the Second Committee worked to concretize the international outcomes of 2015 — including the 2030 Agenda, the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the Paris Agreement and others — he said the importance of ensuring the adequate means of implementation could not be overemphasized.  In that regard, ODA commitments must be fulfilled and illicit flows of finance and resources out of Africa must be curbed.  While information and communication technologies (ICTs) were essential enablers for development, access to them remained a challenge for developing countries.  Restrictive trade measures created hurdles and made for an unfair international trade system.  Despite Africa’s insignificant contribution to the causes of climate change, it was also suffering from drought, flooding, climate-induced displacement and other climate-related challenges.  The international community should accelerate efforts to curb those negative effects, including at the upcoming Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to be held in Morocco.

RUBÉN ZAMORA (El Salvador), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), said it was important to speed up and implement recently signed agreements.  Those included the Paris Agreement, the Addis Ababa Action Agenda and the 2030 Agenda.  A fundamental task for the United Nations was to deal with the structure of the global financial and trade system, currently arranged to help the developed countries and punish those that were not developed.  Financing for development was critical to attaining the Sustainable Development Goals.  The definition of middle-income countries needed to be revised because those States featured structural imbalances which were not reflected in the per capita income numbers, but were systematically covered up by averaging out gross domestic product (GDP).  It was necessary to understand the changing and evolving needs of societies that were evolving at different levels.  El Salvador confirmed its support for reforming the world economic governance structure to ensure more effective and coordinated handling of important global issues.

HORACIO SEVILLA BORJA (Ecuador), associating himself with the Group of 77, said the need for structural change in the international financial system limited the ability of developing countries to implement the Sustainable Development Goals.  To promote international peace and stability, the international community must have a dialogue to increase transparency and good governance in that financial system.  Its excesses had widened inequalities in the world.  She noted that taxes were tools to increase wealth within and between societies, but stressed the need to eliminate tax evasion, illicit monetary flows and tax havens.  Equador’s tax havens currently held $30 billion, an amount which would contribute substantially to sustainable development.  She suggested creating a world government body that discussed tax issues in tackling the problem of such havens.

APPOLINAIRE DINGHA (Congo) said the Second Committee’s work was taking place at a time of slow economic growth and geopolitical concerns.  He expressed hope that the upcoming Habitat III conference would be a strong policy effort to open up development opportunities for the world’s cities and eradicate poverty.  The first session of the high-level political forum on sustainable development drew a picture of the development programme through the 2030 Agenda, and the Committee needed to take that work to heart as it proceeded.  It was necessary to have better capacity-building in operational terms for the United Nations system for implementing the Sustainable Development Goals.  The 2030 Agenda touched on all aspects of development, but nonetheless, to ensure its effective implementation and to eradicate poverty, it was necessary to strengthen partnerships.  Congo had a national plan and through it the country had committed to taking ownership of the 2030 Agenda.

PAUL LOSOKO EFAMBE EMPOLE (Democratic Republic of the Congo) was committed to implementing the Sustainable Development Goals, incorporating them into its national strategic plan.  The country sought to become a middle-income country by 2021, an emerging market by 2030 and a developed State by 2050.  The country continued its development and sought to reduce poverty, and had managed to have the appropriate economic and social infrastructure to improve the welfare of its population.  Climate change was an unprecedented global challenge and jeopardized the very future of humanity.  The Democratic Republic of the Congo was moving to finalize the ratification of the Paris Agreement by the end of 2016.  There remained a gap between developing and developed States, particularly among the least developed countries.  It was necessary to win the war against poverty so humanity would not suffer a failure of development.

NECTON MHURA (Malawi), associating himself with the Group of 77, Group of Landlocked Developing Countries and the Group of Least Developed Countries, said his country had undertaken several economic initiatives to address high inflation and the decline in GDP.  Malawi had suffered from recent weather-related setbacks as well.  Women were at the very core of any society’s success and with that in mind, Malawi had risen the age of marriage to 18 years and was focusing on programmes that boosted girls’ access to education.  As a landlocked developing country, his nation would feel the positive impact of infrastructural development specifically in the area of increasing the number of Malawians that had access to electricity.  He noted the inconclusiveness of the trade negotiations surrounding duty-free and quota-free market access to certain products and said that the stalemate had only exacerbated the challenges faced by landlocked countries.  Malawi called on its global partners to continue supporting programmes that increased access to education for everyone but especially for girls.

JEANNE D’ARC BYAJE (Rwanda), associating herself with the Group of 77 and the African Group, said that global development was a shared responsibility.  Solidarity needed to be encouraged to ensure that vulnerable countries could achieve sustainable development.  An over-reliance on a few key commodities had helped plunge many countries into recession, for instance.  Low or even shrinking growth would adversely impact the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, where growth of about 7 per cent annually was needed to eradicate poverty by 2030.  Rwanda would continue to invest in its people, enhancing citizen empowerment and community capacity-building.  It was imperative to respond to the aspirations of people; advance gender equality; tackle infrastructure and energy gaps; and realize that all actors needed adequate financing to implement the development agenda.

FREDERICK M. SHAVA (Zimbabwe), associating himself with the Group of 77, stressed the need for global partnership to achieve the 2030 Agenda, in the form of provision of financial resources, transfer of technology and capacity- building.  A supportive international environment, including an equitable multilateral trading system, was also critical for poverty eradication, as was follow-up on the Financing for Development agenda and reform of the international financial institutions to respond better to the needs of developing countries.  He expressed particular concern over the lack of commitment from some Member States in promoting cooperation on tax matters and addressing the problem of illicit financial flows.  On climate change, he urged developed countries to fulfil their commitments to provide means of implementation for adaptation and mitigation, in line with the Paris outcome.

TALAL ALI RASHED ALJAMALI (Yemen), associating himself with the Group of 77 and Group of Least Developed Countries, said that one year was not enough to evaluate progress but the ambitious Sustainable Development Goals could be reviewed and its successes and setbacks evaluated.  Those Goals would not have an impact on the poor unless they translated into action.  Yemen had signed the Paris Agreement and joined international efforts to preserve the planet, he said, emphasizing the principle of shared but differentiated responsibility.  Industrialized nations must accept their historic responsibilities.  Yemen was in a “particular situation” and “chaos was prevailing”, he said, adding that the country was now “struggling to reach relief” instead of focus on the development gains it had made.

ABDULLAH A KH A KH ALSHARRAH (Kuwait), associating himself with the Group of 77, said the Paris conference was extremely important in terms of dealing with climate change in a fair way.  The road map was done and now it was time to “shoulder responsibility” in the fight against extreme poverty.  It was critical to ensure respect for the environment and take into account ongoing climate change.  There were common but differentiated responsibilities for all to bear.  Conflict interfered with development and therefore it was critical to address immediate humanitarian needs and put an end to conflict worldwide.  Kuwait, as a high-income country, was doing its best to speed up new partnerships in various regions and was set on creating better living conditions for the people in its region.  “Our efforts had been somewhat successful,” he said, emphasizing that his country’s humanitarian assistance was in accordance with its values.

LAWRENCE XOLANI MALAWANE (South Africa), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the Africa Group, said the success or failure in implementing the 2030 Agenda would depend on adequate means of implementation and meaningful follow-up and review architecture.  Convinced that the financing for development and the 2030 Agenda processes remained on separate tracks, he urged development partners to honour their commitments on ODA.  Addressing illicit financial flows was crucial.  Upgrading the Committee of Experts on International Cooperation in Tax Matters should be upgraded into a universal and intergovernmental body which would provide developing countries with tools to deal with a number of tax related issues, including illicit financial flows.  To combat poverty, special attention should be given to agricultural development and food security.

KUNZANG C. NAMGYEL (Bhutan), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the Group of Least Developed Countries, said that, as a landlocked least developed nation, it had faced immense development challenges.  Stressing that the transformation in the 2030 Agenda period must take place within the least developed countries, he said Bhutan had begun integrating the Sustainable Development Goals into its national priorities in its development planning framework.  The support of development partners was critical to those endeavours, and success would ultimately hinge on the quality of partnerships between Governments, the private sector and civil society at the national, regional and global levels.  Likewise, the 2030 Agenda required a United Nations development system that was able to deliver integrated and coordinated policy support on the ground in response to national needs and priorities.  Noting that Bhutan had been identified as eligible for graduation out of the least developed country category, he emphasized that graduation must be seen in the larger context of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, and must be handled carefully.

MWABA P. KASESE BOTA (Zambia), associating herself with the Group of 77 and the Group of Least Developed Countries, said poverty, through its many offshoots, remained an overarching and pressing challenge around the world.  Promoting transformation and strengthening resilience of economies in Africa — especially countries in special situations — called for the active pursuit of industrialization.  Zambia had been creating a five-year national development plan aimed at fostering growth by initially placing a special focus on the development of rural areas that had the highest prospects for reducing poverty levels.  Other strategies included industrialization, appropriate infrastructure development and fostering rural development by focusing on agriculture and creating jobs.  It was also working to create Value Chain Cluster Programmes, diversification of the agricultural sector, promotion of forestry and Multi-facility Economic Zones and to prioritize infrastructure, energy, water, transport, communication, education and health.  Climate change also remained a national priority.

DURGA PRASAD BHATTARAI (Nepal), associating himself with the Group of 77, Group of Least Developed Countries and the Group of Landlocked Developing Countries, said that implementation of the 2030 Agenda had not yet begun in real terms.  It was important to find and urgently remedy the delay so that 2030 commitments could be translated into meaningful results on the ground, including poverty eradication.  Poverty was the worst enemy of humanity, serving as fertile breeding ground for most social ills, beginning with hunger and illiteracy and resulting in anger and even terrorism.  National commitments, ownership, leadership, people-centric and accountable governance systems must be complemented by robust international partnership to win the arduous battle against poverty.  He also stressed that the international community was obliged to help graduate least developed countries and ease structural deficiencies of landlocked developing countries, as agreed in programmes of action for those countries.  It was also important to note the huge potential of South-South cooperation, which could be a game changer in ensuring implementation of new agendas.

ALASSANE CONTE (Guinea) said the international community had committed itself to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.  Guinea had suffered two years of the Ebola outbreak and was now paying strict heed to the Goals.  In May, the new Prime Minister had promised to re-establish rule of law, kick-start the national economy and combat corruption.  The Government was the first pillar around which sustainable development progress should be made.  Economically, specialists had noted that Guinea could supply the world’s aluminium needs for a century.  The country was currently focusing on mining, creating a framework favouring investment.  Programmes had been signed for several billion dollars in investment, which could make Guinea the mining capital of West Africa.  A large programme had also been put in place to improve agriculture, which could make his country the bread basket of the region.

IVA JEMUOVIC (Serbia) said that her country had begun the process of updating its national strategy for sustainable development and the financing to go along with that.  Failure to achieve the “lofty” goals set was not an option.  Each country had a responsibility to attain sustainable development but sub-regional, regional and global cooperation was indispensable to that.  Moving on to climate change, she noted the massive and devastating floods that had hit Serbia two years ago and outlined myriad concrete actions taken by the Government including stemming greenhouse gas emissions.  On migration, she said that over the past year and a half more than 700,000 refugees and migrants transited through Serbia.  Currently, there were more than 7,000 migrants and asylum-seeking people in the country.  As a nation that had experience protracted displacement for more than 20 years, Serbia simply did not have the capacity to be a long-term, mass shelter for migrants.  A comprehensive European and global solution was vital to address that phenomenon.

MOHAMED KHALED KHIARI (Tunisia), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the African Group, said there was a growing international consciousness intent on reducing development gaps.  He called on the international community to provide means to implement the 2030 Agenda, referring to the Addis Ababa Action Agenda.  Stressing the importance of enhancing global partnerships, he pointed to the importance of abiding by agreed-upon development assistance for developing countries, especially in Africa, considering the harsh challenges they faced.  Due attention should also be paid to transition countries to overcome social and economic difficulties by reinforcing resources and transferring technology.  Efforts should also be made to eliminate tax evasion, illegal flows and financial corruption.  Finally, there was a need to facilitate the access of developing countries to special funds to alleviate the effects of climate change.

ANATOLIO NDONG MBA (Equatorial Guinea), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the African Group, said his country had taken into account domestic risks and vulnerabilities in its implementation of sustainable development.  Its administration had invested in projects with hopes that Equatorial Guinea would become an emerging economy by 2020.  Society was informed by the planned targets through various public campaigns.  State stability fostered development and from that standpoint, the State was a clearly defined public entity that could represent many interests but its very existence was absolutely fundamental.  “Speaking quite frankly, if there is no State, there could be no development,” he said, noting the various failed States worldwide whose development gains and hopes had been squandered.  Equatorial Guinea and its Government were committed to applying the development agenda and had already budgeted for it until 2020.  It was focused on diversifying its economy by being less dependent on resources.

NOUR MAMDOUH KASEB ALJAZI (Jordan), associating herself with the Group of 77, said that some development gains had been jeopardized by various factors including the recent flow of migration.  The number of displaced people worldwide was beyond 60 million, she added, emphasizing the need for an international response.  Partners, civil society and the private sector must join forces to address the phenomenon.  The Syrian crisis had substantially increased “the burden on Jordan’s shoulders”, she said, adding that her country had taken in 1.3 million refugees.  That caused problems with social infrastructure and availability of Government services but despite those immense challenges, Jordan remained committed to sustainable development.  Financing represented a major challenge, she said, underscoring the importance of ODA for both developing and middle-income countries.

MARTÍN GARCÍA MORITÁN (Argentina), associating himself with the Group of 77, said the 2030 Agenda recognized that the elimination of poverty was a serious challenge and crucial to sustainable development.  The Agenda provided a new framework for sustainable development and was universal in nature, eliminating imbalances and inequalities within and between countries.  It was a commitment that applied to all countries, considering the priorities and capacities of each.  Argentina had begun strengthening its institutional regulations to implement each part of the Agenda.  He stressed that climate change was the biggest challenge facing mankind today.  Argentina had attempted to improve its governance, setting up a national network on climate change to monitor reductions in emissions and determine steps to take in future years.  He also emphasized that operational activities for development must have a broader and greater role to help countries achieve the 2030 Agenda.  The international community must develop national capacity in developing countries and integrate South-South and triangular cooperation into the strategic plans of several United Nations agencies.

LEWIS G. BROWN (Liberia), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the African Group, said that while everyone had been analysing challenges pertaining to sustainable growth it was equally important to note that the Millennium Development Goals deepened humanity’s understanding of global poverty, rising inequality and pervasive injustice.  Liberia had embarked on the process of domesticating the Sustainable Development Goals through robust initiatives, working with the private sector, civil society and faith-based leaders.  Efforts to enhance national ownership were also manifested in several areas, including the national budget.  The focus was on a process of localization and decentralization.  With 42 per cent of biodiversity in the West African region, Liberia understood the importance of protecting the environment from the trappings of global warming and the effects of climate change.  It remained committed to the sustainable use of land and forests.

ABDULLAH ABU SHAWESH, observer for the State of Palestine, aligning his statement with that of the Group of 77, asked how the Second Committee could promote development when the people of Palestine faced acute challenges.  Israel was the occupying Power and was destroying in a systematic manner all pillars of development.  Forty eight years ago, Israel had occupied the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and since then Palestinian development had gone backwards.  Palestinian resources were being looted and depleted in full view of the international community, producing an imbalanced relationship where the Palestinians were being denied access to their natural resources while Israeli settlements were being enlarged.  The 2030 Agenda stated that peace and development were inseparable.  Israel continued to take hundreds of military actions depriving Palestinians of their right to development, notably through the policy of settlement expansion.  “They are terrorist settlers armed to the teeth, armed with racial ideologies,” he said, and added that it was high time to end the Israeli occupation.

BERNARDITO CLEOPAS AUZA, Permanent Observer of the Holy See, said the recent conclusion of many significant international commitments demonstrated a willingness among political leaders to come together to address global challenges.  At the same time, however, there had been a continued breakdown of trust as inequalities among and within countries had widened and the number of violent conflicts had increased.  A human-centred approach must form the centre of all efforts to address the interconnected challenges of environmental, economic and social development, he said, underscoring the need to avoid a reductionist approach that viewed the human person as an obstacle to development or, even worse, as the cause of his or her own underdevelopment and neediness.  Among other things, he called for a renewed commitment to just and equitable mechanisms for global trade and multilateral financial assistance, and warned against “global indifference” to the needs of others.  “The strength of international cooperation is based on the principle of one common humanity rooted in the equal dignity of all,” he said.

XOLISA MABHONGO, International Atomic and Energy Agency (IAEA), said that nuclear science and technology had myriad peaceful applications which could help countries reduce poverty and hunger, improve energy supplies, and diagnose and treat diseases.  When it came to treating cancer, numerous countries lacked both the equipment and the trained medical personnel.  In Africa alone, there were 28 countries which did not have a single radiotherapy machine.  The Agency was working to provide both technology and training to health professionals.  Two years ago, it had helped countries in West Africa deal with an outbreak of Ebola by providing diagnostic kits and laboratory supplies.  It was now adopting a similar approach in Latin America and the Caribbean in the response to the Zika virus.  It was also developing nuclear techniques to fight insect pests.  While energy was the engine of development, over a billion people still lacked access to electricity.  Nuclear power was one of the lowest-carbon technologies to generate electricity.

LAKSHMI PURI, Assistant Secretary-General and Deputy Executive Director of the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN-Women), urged Second Committee delegates to make gender-responsive implementation of the 2030 Agenda a central element.  The Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review should empower and reposition the United Nations development system to reflect the gender aspect of the Agenda and maximize its impact at the country level.  The Review should leverage normative gains of 2015 to help accelerate gender equality achievements and ensure no one was left behind.  It should also provide operational policy guidance on accelerating transformative results, as well as build and empower the next generation of gender equality champions across all United Nations entities.

CARLA MUCAVI, Director of the New York Liaison Office of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), said that 795 million people still suffered from chronic hunger, and over 70 per cent of the world’s poor and food insecure lived in rural areas of developing countries.  When opportunities for a decent life were not present, rural people were often forced to leave their homes.  Global action must be geared at overcoming constraints to accessing markets and resources.  Action must focus on building resilience, promoting sustainable approaches and supporting efforts to adapt to climate change.  It was also important to create jobs and opportunities that rural communities needed.  Rural development and improved food systems were also important parts of the effort to promote sustainable production and consumption and reduce food loss and waste.

VINICIUS CARVALHO PINHEIRO, International Labour Organization (ILO), said a major sustainable development challenge for the coming years was creation of decent jobs for young people.  Ongoing trends of low and jobless economic growth and dissemination of labour-saving technologies may impact the future of work could compromise Goal 8 of the 2030 Agenda.  ILO studies showed that, since the low-carbon economy was more job-intensive, work created by a transition to clean energy and more sustainable production patterns could more than offset the loss of jobs in emissions-intensive industries.  If managed well, transitions to environmentally and socially sustainable economies could become a strong driver of job creation, job upgrading, social justice and poverty eradication.

CHANTAL LINE CARPENTIER, Chief of the New York Office of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), expressed concern about the global economy as illustrated in UNCTAD’s recent Trade and Development Report and World Investment Reports.  “If we don’t get trade, investment, finance and technology right, and right now […] we will not achieve the Sustainable Development Goals,” she said, stressing that the Goals must be used to turn the global economy around.  Countries would need to pool their knowledge, tools and funds to support implementation, especially to the benefit of least developed, African, landlocked and small island States, as well as middle-income countries and others in special situations.  That was the only way to stem protectionism and isolationism and re‑establish globalization as an engine of inclusive prosperity for all.  UNCTAD was launching a multi-donor trust fund on trade and productive capacity and initiating deeper and more inclusive partnerships.

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Forest Whitaker and Andrea Bocelli join Ban Ki-moon at the UN to shine a spotlight on progress of the global goals, one year on

Sep 16, 2016
  • Partners the United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Foundation, SDG Action Campaign and Project Everyone come together for the inaugural Global Goals Week
  • UN Secretary-General, PGA, Special Adviser for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, DPI and SDG Advocates including Forest Whitaker, Andrea Bocelli, Dr. Alaa Murabit and Richard Curtis call on all world leaders to implement the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030
  • Global Girls bus will tour New York, blasting messages from women and girls around the world from the #whatireallyreallywant campaign

Next week will mark the first anniversary of the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals, signed by 193 world leaders on 25th September 2015 at the UN General Assembly. In the 7 days following, news of these Global Goals reached 40% of the world’s population, around 3 billion people.   

This year in order to keep up momentum and ensure all 17 Goals are achieved, the UN and partners from around the world are launching #GlobalGoals Week - an annual week of action, awareness and accountability for Sustainable Development. At the centre of this week will be ‘SDG Year 1’, a special session at the UNGA Opening which will call on all world leaders to implement the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030 and mark progress in 2016.  It will include films, produced by writer, film-maker and SDG Advocate Richard Curtis, and feature SDG Advocates Forest Whitaker, Andrea Bocelli, Dr. Alaa Murabit, the President of the General Assembly Peter Thomson and the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon.

Throughout the week, UNDP, UN Foundation, SDG Action Campaign and Project Everyone, the founding partners of #GlobalGoals Week, will work with events and organisations such as the Social Good Summit, Global Citizen Festival, the office of the Special Adviser for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the World’s Largest Lesson and UNICEF, Leave No-One Behind partnership, Global Compact, Every Women Every Child, GSMA, the UN Department of Public Information and many more to promote action, accountability and awareness of the Goals. So this September starts the countdown for the next 14 years to ensure no one is left behind.

As part of #GlobalGoals Week and in the year Girl Power went Global, the messages from people around the world inspired by the film #WhatIReallyReallyWant, will be brought to NYC as world leaders gather. Issues like quality education, an end to violence, an end to child marriage and equal pay for equal work need to be top of every governments’ agenda in order to give the Goals the best possible start. With 110 million views, 40 million impressions on Twitter and global media coverage, produced by MJ Delaney and supported by original Spice Girl, Victoria Beckham and Mel C, the film inspired an overwhelming response on social media with people from all over the world sharing images of what they really want for girls and women. These messages will be brought to New York on a Global Girls bus with performers from the video and influential women at key events and moments throughout the week.

#GlobalGoals Week: 18th – 24th of September 2016

10 #GLOBALGOALS WEEK EVENTS IN NEW YORK  

  1. SDG Year 1 at the UNGA Opening Session – A unique SDG accountability moment including films, produced by writer, film-maker and SDG Advocate Richard Curtis, and featuring SDG Advocates Forest Whitaker, Andrea Bocelli and Dr. Alaa Murabit, the President of the General Assembly Peter Thomson and the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon. This moment will call on all world leaders at the UN General Assembly to implement the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030 and mark progress in 2016.  
  2. The Young Leaders Initiative - launched by the Office of the UN Secretary General’s Envoy on Youth, is announcing 17 Young Leaders (19–30) and champions for the SDGs recognized for their leadership and contribution to a more sustainable world, and representing every region in the world.
  3. The Social Good Summit -  will launch Global Goals Week with UNDP’s Helen Clark, the UN Foundation’s Kathy Calvin, Mashable’s Pete Cashmore, the 92nd Street Y’s Henry Timms and Yusra & Sarah Mardini from Syria. UNDP will spread the word of the Goals to over 80 countries including Yemen, Iran, N. Korea and Iraq. 
  4. UN Global Compact Private Sector Forum – 350 CEOs, government leaders, UN agencies and civil society will come come together to focus on the role of business in advancing sustainable development to prevent global instability. 
  5. Global Goals Awards Dinner – in partnership with the SDG Advocates, Unilever and UNICEF focusing on Global Girls and giving awards to those who have helped make progress towards Girl Goals. This will be the first annual dinner to mark accountability for the Sustainable Development Goals, and will call on all sectors – from the public, to civil society, government, media and business - to do more, and work together to achieve their implementation over the next 14 years.                 
  6. Solutions Summit – a summit highlighting projects and creative solutions advancing the achievements of the Global Goals
  7. Global Citizen Festival – The fifth Global Citizen Festival will focus on the achievement of the SDGs, bringing together musicians including Rihanna, Coldplay and Ellie Goulding, celebrities and world leaders in an effort to enact major policy commitments toward the issues of girls’ and women’s equality, education, health, water and sanitation, environment, finance and innovation, and food and hunger.
  8. The World’s Largest Lesson – in partnership with UNICEF has reached 160 countries since launch, and in 2016 is launching in India with Bollywood Actress Sonam Kapoor and youth organisations in 120 countries sending volunteers to teach lessons to younger children.    
  9. The Global Goals Mobile Campaign 2016 - includes an official SDG Action app produced by the GSMA, Project Everyone and DPI, participation of 17 mobile operator groups with 2 billion customers being asked to support the campaign, and 900 million people receiving a Global Goals text message. A live Mobile Show featuring the best of Global Goals week and in partnership with Global Citizen, will be made free to view on mobile, and a fun interactive feature will enable millions to text Mr. Bean and world leaders about what they love most in their world.
  10. The Global Girls Bus – As leaders attend a Special Session inside the UN Chamber on the SDGs, a Global Girls bus will begin a loud tour of New York, ensuring the messages received from women and girls around the world this year from the #WhatIReallyReallyWant campaign are heard loud and clear. The bus will bring together performers from the #WhatIReallyReallyWant video with leading women’s rights activists and public figures to shout about the progress that still needs to be made for women and girls.

Helen Clark, Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme, said: "The UN has an ambitious agenda to end poverty, fix climate change, and address inequalities over 15 years. Now we need everyone to help make this a reality. Everyone needs to know about the Goals, and every September when world leaders gather for the opening of the UN General Assembly, we must emphasize the importance of delivery on the promises of the Sustainable Development Goals."

Forest Whitaker, Actor, Director, Producer and SDG Advocate said: "Our collective commitment to the 17 Global Goals is our most important defense in ensuring that the benefits of our modernizing world are shared among all nations and people and not just by the privileged few. These goals are intended to serve the interest of every woman, man, and child on our planet. And that means that achieving these goals is up to all of us. This has to be an international movement—a coming together of people and a rallying around a common cause on a scale. I believe we have the tools and the passion to make the Global Goals a reality."

David Nabarro, Special Adviser to the Secretary General for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and Climate Change said: “In this first year anniversary – “SDG Year 1” – more than 50 governments, and also numerous businesses, scientists and civil society organizations have stepped up their efforts to make the SDGs a central framework for their policies and actions, and have increased their focus and investment on data collection and analysis to guide decisions and leave no on behind. The first anniversary of the adoption of the SDGs is an opportunity to celebrate all achievements made, to do more to make SDGs a reality and most importantly to thank the governements, businesses, civil society groups and young people around the world for all their efforts.”

Sir Ken Robinson, author, speaker and international advisor on education, said:  "The Global Goals are an enormous opportunity for positive and creative change. We have to continue to raise everyone’s awareness of them and especially excite the curiosity of children and young people. Of course we need the support of world leaders but global change also has to come from the ground up. The World’s Largest Lesson and The Global Goals campaign are taking a creative approach to inspiring this kind of action and I’m proud and excited to continue my work with them this year.”  

Richard Curtis, Writer, Director, & SDG Advocate, said: “Every year counts in trying to achieve the high ambitions of the new Goals.  I am encouraged that a series of traditions is starting – Awards for people working for the Goals, the World’s Largest Lesson, the Social Good Summit, the Global Citizen Festival and mobile show, focusing on the Goals and most important, a special session at the UN itself – all of which which adds to the pressure on all of us to work towards fulfilling the SDGs.”

Kathy Calvin, President and Chief Executive Officer of the United Nations Foundation, said: “This week is not just about the numbers.  It's about what the numbers can do when they come together around real solutions for real people.  What kicks off with the Global Goals week announcement at the Social Good Summit will include important moments where the UN and partners are coming together around tangible, scalable solutions for progress.  The Solutions Summit on September 21st is a good example of how much energy and creativity is coming around these goals. It's a smart approach that puts numbers to work and helps turn words into action.”

Media ASSETS

Plan: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lesuDcxitg8

#WhatIReallyReallyWant: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HSf-SBUwYwc

Global Goals channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCRfuAYy7MesZmgOi1Ezy0ng

ICONS GIFS: https://wdrv.it/acc540c10

For further information, please contact:

Lottie Dodson

freuds

Tel: +44 7825 707145

Email: lottie.dodson@freuds.com

Notes to Editors:

SDG Year 1 key achievements

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